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实用传热

ISBN:
1-56700-216-1 (打印)

实用传热

Peter D. Hills
Formerly with ICI United Kingdom

描述

Author of several well-received Process Engineering Guides in Heat Transfer, Peter Hills brings more than 25 years of experience in a variety of thermal applications. The book provides a practical insight into the design, operations, specification, and purchasing of heat transfer equipment. The engineer is led through logical understanding of all processes involved and taught to distinguish the practical applications from the computer codes. Covers a wide and detailed variety of process and power equipment.



340 pages, © 2005

目录:

CHAPTER 1 - HEAT EXCHANGER SELECTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 BACKGROUND
1.2.1 Limitations to the Shell and tube design
1.2.2 Obstacles to Innovation
1.2.2.1 Major Projects
1.2.2.2 Minor Projects
1.2.2.3 Special Cases
1.2.2.5 Emotion
1.3 FACTORS INFLUENCING SELECTION
1.3.1 Type of Duty
1.3.2 Operating Limitation
1.3.3 Materials of Construction
1.3.4 Fouling and Cleaning
1.3.5 Safety and Reliability
1.3.6 Inspection, Maintenance and Repairs
1.3.7 Design Methods
1.3.8 Dimensions and Weight
1.3.9 Cost
1.3.10 Delivery
1.4 TYPES OF EXCHANGER
1.4.1 Shell and Tube Exchangers
1.4.2 Cylindrical Block graphite exchangers
1.4.3 Cubic Graphite Block Heat Exchangers
1.4.4 Air cooled heat exchangers
1.4.5 Gasketed Plate and Frame changers
1.4.6 Spiral Plate Exchangers
1.4.7 Tube in Duct Exchangers
1.4.8 Plate-fin Heat Exchangers
1.4.9 Scraped surface/wiped film exchangers
1.4.10 Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE)
1.4.11 Welded or Brazed Plate
1.4.11.1 Plate and Frame Type
1.4.11.1 'Compabloc'
1.4.11.3 Other Types
1.4.12 Double Pipe
1.4.13 Electric Heaters
1.4.14 Fired Process Heaters
1.4.15 Regenerators
1.4.15.1 Types of Regenerator
1.4.15.2 Thermal storage media
1.4.15.3 Applications
REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER 1
CHAPTER 2 - COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR HEAT EXCHANGER RATING
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 SOURCES OF SOFTWARE
2.2.1 In-House Software
2.2.2 Research Based Organisations
2.2.3 Software Houses
2.3 SELECTION OF SOFTWARE
2.4 MODES OF OPERATION
2.4.1 Design
2.4.2 Checking
2.4.3 Simulation
2.4.4 Limitations
2.5 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
2.5.1 Input Data
2.5.2 Output Messages
2.5.2.1 Error Messages
2.5.2.2 Warning Messages
2.5.2.3 Advisory Messages
2.5.3 Physical Property Output
2.5.4 Main Results Page
2.5.5 Detailed Conditions Along the Exchanger
2.5.6 Pressure Drop Distributions
2.5.7 Flow Distributions
2.5.8 Ancillary Calculations
2.5.9 Setting Plans
REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER 2
CHAPTER 3 - PHYSICAL PROPERTIES FOR HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 DATA REQUIREMENTS
3.3 COMPONENT PROPERTIES
3.3.1 Use of Automatic Property Codes
3.3.2 Direct Input of Component Properties
3.3.3 Use of Component Properties for Mixtures
3.4 INPUT OF MIXTURE CURVES
3.4.1 Generation of the mixture curves
3.4.2 Selection of temperature points
3.4.3 Extrapolation
3.5 IMMISCIBLE CONDENSATES
REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER 3
CHAPTER 4 - THERMAL DESIGN MARGINS FOR HEAT EXCHANGERS
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 TERMINOLOGY
4.3 REASONS FOR SPECIFYING A DESIGN MARGIN
4.3.1 Instantaneous Rates
4.3.2 Future Uprating
4.3.3 Plant upsets
4.3.4 Process Control
4.3.5 Uncertainties in properties
4.3.6 Uncertainties in design methods
4.3.7 Fouling
4.4 COMBINATION OF DESIGN MARGINS
4.5 CRITICAL AND NON CRITICAL DUTIES
4.5.1 General
4.5.2 Penalties of Over-Design
4.6 OPTIMISATION OF EXCHANGER DUTY
4.7 WAYS OF PROVIDING DESIGN MARGINS
4.7.1 The provision of excess surface
4.7.2 Decreasing the design temperature difference
4.7.3 Increasing the design process throughput
4.7.4 Increasing the design fouling resistance
4.7.5 Reducing the design process outlet temperature approach
4.7.6 Adjusting the physical properties
4.8 ACCURACY OF THE DESIGN METHODS FOR SHELL AND TUBE EXCHANGERS
4.8.1 Pressure Drop
4.8.1.1 Tube-side flow
4.8.1.1 Shell-side flow
4.8.2 Heat Transfer
4.8.2.1 Tube side
4.8.2.2 Shell side
4.9 SUGGESTED MARGINS
4.9.1 No Phase Change duties
4.9.2 Condensers
4.9.3 Boilers
4.10 EFFECT OF UNDER- OR OVER-SURFACE ON PERFORMANCE
REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER 4
CHAPTER 5 - REBOILERS FOR DISTILLATION COLUMNS
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 SELECTION OF REBOILER TYPE
5.2.1 General Considerations
5.2.2 Separation Efficiency
5.3 SUMMARY OF BOILER TYPES AVAILABLE
5.3.1 Direct Vapour Injection
5.3.2 External Generation of Vapour
5.3.3 Thermosyphon Reboilers
5.3.3.1 Vertical Thermosyphon Reboiler.
5.3.3.2 Horizontal Thermosyphon Reboiler
5.3.4 Forced Circulation Boiler
5.3.5 Suppressed Vaporisation Boiler
5.3.6 Kettle Reboiler
5.3.7 Bayonet Tube Vaporiser
5.3.8 Internal Boiler
5.4 THE DESIGN AND LAYOUT OF VERTICAL THERMOSYPHON REBOILERS
5.4.1 The Design Problem
5.4.2 General Considerations
5.4.2.1 Heating Medium Temperature
5.4.2.2 Fouling Resistance
5.4.3 Design Parameters
5.4.3.1 Overall Arrangement and Specifications
5.4.3.2 Geometry Elements
5.4.4 Analysis of the Program Results
5.4.5 Adjustments to design
5.4.6 Operating Range
5.4.7 Control
5.4.7.1 Control of condensing heating medium pressure
5.4.7.2 Control of the condensate level
5.4.7.3 Control of sensible fluid flow rate
5.4.8 Layout
5.4.8.1 Factors influencing design
5.4.8.2 A suggested standard layout
APPENDIX A5 ESTIMATION OF FOULING RESISTANCE FROM PLANT DATA.
A5.1 Manual Iteration
A5.2 Available Duty Method
REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER 5
CHAPTER 6 - SELECTION AND DESIGN OF CONDENSERS
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 CHOICE OF COOLANT
6.3 LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS
6.3.1 Distillation Column Condensers
6.3.2 Other Process Condensers
6.4 CONTROL
6.4.1 General Considerations
6.4.1.1 Composition Control
6.4.1.2 Vapour balance in the Column
6.4.1.3 Mass balance on the liquid in the condensation system
6.4.1.4 Mass balance on the liquid in the reboil system
6.4.2 Control of the Condensation System
6.4.3 Methods For Controlling Rate of Condensation
6.4.3.1 Control of the Condensing Pressure
6.4.3.2 Use of Inert Gas
6.4.3.3 Control of Coolant Flow
6.4.3.4 Control of Coolant Temperature
6.4.3.5 Control of Condensing Surface
6.5 CONDENSATION THEORY
6.5.1 Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium
6.5.2 Heat transfer resistances
6.5.2.1 Silver/Bell & Ghaly Method
6.5.2.2 Film Theory Methods
6.5.3 Fogging
6.6 GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
6.6.1 Vapour Velocities
6.6.2 Pressure Drop
6.6.3 Handling of Inerts
6.6.4 Vapour Inlet Design
6.6.5 Drainage of Condensate
6.7 SUMMARY OF TYPES OF CONDENSER
6.7.1 SUMMARY OF TYPES OF CONDENSER
6.7.2 Shell & Tube Exchangers
6.7.2.1 Tubeside condensation
6.7.2.2 Cross-flow Shellside Condensers. (TEMA X shell type)
6.7.2.3 Baffled shell-side condensers
6.7.2.4 Extended surfaces
6.7.2.5 Subcooling
6.7.3 Air Cooled Heat Exchangers
6.7.4 Spiral Plate Heat Exchangers
6.7.5 Internal Condensers
6.7.6 Plate Heat Exchangers
6.7.7 Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers
6.7.8 Other Compact and Proprietary Designs
6.8 REFLUXING CONDENSATION SYSTEMS (DEPHLEGMATORS)
6.8.1 Applications
6.8.2 Temperature-composition Relationships
6.8.3 Geometry
6.8.4 Design Calculations for Reflux Condensers
6.8.4.1 Flooding
6.8.4.2 Estimation of Thermal Performance
APPENDIX A6 - COLBURN-HOUGEN MODELLING OF CONDENSATION
A6.1 INTRODUCTION
A6.2 CALCULATION OF INTERFACE TEMPERATURE
A6.3 MODELS FOR CONDENSATE BEHAVIOUR
A6.3.1 Separated Model
A6.3.1 Combined Model
A6.4 CALCULATION OF CHANGES ACROSS THE ZONE
A6.5 SATURATION CALCULATIONS
A6.6 EXAMPLE
REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER 6
SYMBOLS USED IN CHAPTER 6
CHAPTER 7 - SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS
7.1 INTRODUCTION
7.2 TYPES OF SHELL AND TUBE EXCHANGER
7.2.1 Shell Types
7.2.1.1 Single Tube-Side Pass
7.2.1.2 Multiple tube-side passes
7.2.1.3 Other Shell Types
7.2.2 Head Types
7.2.3 Fluid Allocation
7.2.3.1 Materials of Construction
7.2.3.2 Fouling
7.2.3.3 Pressures
7.2.3.4 Flowrates
7.2.3.5 Pressure Drops
7.2.3.6 Enhancement of heat transfer
7.2.3.7 Cooling of viscous fluids
7.3 MECHANICAL CONSTRAINTS ON THERMAL DESIGN
7.3.1 Design Codes and Standards
7.3.2 Standard Dimensions
7.3.2.1 Shell Diameters
7.3.2.2 Tube Lengths
7.3.2.3 Tube Diameters
7.3.2.4 Tube Wall Thicknesses
7.3.3 Tube Wall Thicknesses
7.3.3.1 Tube Pitch
7.3.3.2 Pass partition lane widths
7.3.3.3 Minimum 'U' bend clearance
7.3.3.4 Tube-to-baffle clearance
7.3.3.5 Baffle-to-shell clearance
7.3.3.6 Bundle-to-shell clearance
7.3.4 Tubesheet thickness
7.3.5 End zone lengths
7.3.5.1 Design of End Zones
7.3.6 Tube counts
7.3.6.1 Program correlations
7.3.6.2 Use of tubecount tables
7.3.6.3 Graphical layout
7.3.6.4 Use of tubesheet design programs
7.3.6.5 Impingement plates
7.3.6.6 Tie-rods and bundle runners
7.4 TUBE VIBRATION
7.4.1 Mechanisms of Vibration
7.4.1.1 Turbulent and Two-Phase Buffeting
7.4.1.2 Acoustic Resonance
7.4.1.3 Periodic Wake Shedding
7.4.1.4 Fluid-Elastic Instability
7.4.2 Tube Natural Frequencies
7.4.3 Mechanical Damping
7.4.4 Critical Velocities
7.4.5 Assessment of Risk of Vibration Damage
7.4.6 Designing to Avoid Vibration
7.4.6.1 Reducing baffle spacing
7.4.6.2 End lengths
7.4.6.3 Auxiliary Support Baffles
7.4.6.4 No Tubes in Window Designs
7.4.6.5 Rod Baffle Exchangers
7.4.6.6 Double Segmental Baffles
7.4.6.7 Use of a TEMA J-Shell
7.4.6.8 Twisted Tube' Exchangers
7.4.6.9 U-tube Bundles
REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER 7
SYMBOLS USED IN CHAPTER 7
CHAPTER 8 - AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS
8.1 INTRODUCTION
8.2 DESCRIPTION AND TERMINOLOGY
8.3 SUITABILITY FOR AIR COOLING
8.3.1 Options Available for Cooling
8.3.1.1 General
8.3.1.2 Direct contact cooling
8.3.1.3 Use of raw water on a ‘once through’ basis
8.3.1.4 Indirect cooling with a secondary coolant
8.3.1.5 Cooling water from an evaporative cooling tower
8.3.1.6 Cooling water from a dry cooling tower
8.3.1.7 Cooling water from an air cooled heat exchanger
8.3.1.8 Direct cooling in an air cooled heat exchanger
8.3.2 Choice of Cooling System
8.3.2.1 Economic factors
8.3.2.2 Process considerations
8.3.2.3 Layout
8.3.2.4 Site conditions
8.3.2.5 Noise
8.3.2.6 Ambient conditions
8.4 SPECIFICATION OF AN AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGER
8.4.1 General
8.4.2 Thermal Duty and Design Margins
8.4.3 Process Pressure Drop
8.4.4 Design Ambient Conditions
8.4.4.1 Dry bulb air temperature
8.4.4.2 Altitude
8.4.5 Process Physical Properties
8.4.6 Mechanical Design Constraints
8.4.6.1 Standard specifications
8.4.6.2 Materials of construction
8.4.6.3 Fintube type
8.4.6.4 Tubing dimensions
8.4.6.5 Temperature limitations
8.4.6.6 Airside design clearances
8.4.6.7 Noise
8.4.6.8 Fan characteristics
8.4.6.9 Fan drives
8.4.6.10 Header types
8.4.7 Arrangement
8.4.8 Air Side Fouling
8.4.9 Economic Factors in Design
8.5 CONTROL
8.5.1 Control of the Process Fluid
8.5.2 Control of the Air Flowrate
8.5.2.1 Changing motor speeds
8.5.2.2 Changing fan blade pitch angle
8.5.2.3 Louvres
8.5.3 Control of Air Temperature
8.5.4 Effect of Weather on ACHE Control
8.5.4.1 Air temperature
8.5.4.2 Rain
8.5.4.3 Wind
8.5.5 Combined Units
8.5.6 Natural Convection Performance
8.6 PRESSURE RELIEF
8.6.1 Assessment of Whether Relief is Necessary
8.6.2 Estimation of Heat Input
8.6.2.1 Wetted area
8.6.2.2 Heat input
8.6.3 Estimation of the Potential Required Relief Rate
8.6.4 If necessary consider means of reducing the heat input
8.7 ASSESSMENT OF OFFERS
8.7.1 General
8.7.2 Manual Checking of Designs
8.7.2.1 Mean temperature difference
8.7.2.2 Heat transfer rate
8.7.2.3 Process pressure drop
8.7.2.4 Fan power
8.7.2.5 Noise claims
8.7.3 Computer Assessment
8.7.3.1 Introduction
8.7.3.2 Process flow distribution
8.7.3.3 Air flow distribution
8.7.4 Bid Comparison
8.8 FOULING AND CORROSION
8.8.1 Fouling
8.8.2 Corrosion
8.8.2.1 Introduction
8.8.2.2 Protective coatings
8.8.2.3 Sacrificial tubes
8.9 PERFORMANCE TESTING
8.9.1 General
8.9.2 Preparation for Performance Measurements
8.9.3 Mechanical Checks
8.9.4 Process Flow Distribution
8.9.5 Air Side Measurements
8.9.5.1 Temperature
8.9.5.2 Air flow
8.9.5.3 Pressure measurements
8.9.5.4 Air humidity
8.9.6 Noise
8.10 AIR SIDE CLEANING
8.10.1 General
8.10.2 Methods of Cleaning
8.10.3 Results
8.10.4 Preferred Contractors
8.11 MECHANICAL MAINTENANCE
8.11.1 Fans
8.11.2 Fan Drives
8.11.3 Tubeside access
APPENDIX A8 - Preliminary Estimation of ACHE Size and Cost
A8.1 Basic Method
A8.1.1 Linear Heat Release Curves
A8.1.2 Non-linear Heat Release Curves
A8.1.3 Correction Factors
A8.2 Limitations and Accuracy
REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER 8
SYMBOLS USED IN CHAPTER 8
CHAPTER 9 - GRAPHITE HEAT EXCHANGERS
9.1 INTRODUCTION
9.2 TYPES OF GRAPHITE
9.2.1 Phenolic resin impregnation
9.2.2 Furane resin impregnation
9.2.3 PTFE impregnation
9.2.4 Carbon impregnation
9.3 TYPES OF EXCHANGER
9.3.1 Graphite Shell and Tube exchangers
9.3.2 Cubic block exchangers
9.3.3 Cylindrical graphite block exchangers
9.3.4 Graphite plate exchangers
9.4 LIMITATIONS ON USE
9.5 COSTS OF GRAPHITE EXCHANGERS
9.6 RATING OF GRAPHITE EXCHANGERS
9.6.1 Rating graphite shell and tube exchangers
9.6.2 Rating cylindrical block exchangers
9.6.3 Rating cubic block exchangers
REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER 9
SYMBOLS USED IN CHAPTER 9
CHAPTER 10 - COOLING WATER SYSTEMS
10.1 INTRODUCTION
10.2 ALTERNATIVES TO COOLING WATER
10.3 SOURCES OF COOLING WATER
10.3.1 Sea, River or Canal Water on a Once Through Basis
10.3.2 Towns Water on a Once-through Basis
10.3.3 Recirculated Cooling Water
10.3.3.1 Closed Circuit Systems
10.3.3.2 Open Circuit (Evaporative) Systems
10.4 PROBLEMS WITH WATER AS A COOLANT
10.4.1 Fouling
10.4.2 Corrosion
10.5 COOLING WATER SYSTEM DESIGN
10.5.1 Evaporative Cooling Towers
10.5.1.1 Tower Design
10.5.2 Heat exchanger design
10.5.2.1 Quality of Cooling Water
10.5.2.2 Cooling Water on Shell-side or Tube-side
10.5.2.3 Cooling Water on the Shell-side
10.5.2.4 Limiting Temperatures
10.5.2.5 Fouling Resistances
10.5.2.6 Pressure Drop
10.5.2.7 Materials of Construction
10.5.2.8 Water Velocity
10.5.2.9 Direction of Water Flow
10.5.2.10 Vents and Drains
10.5.2.11 Control
10.5.2.12 Maintenance
10.5.3 Distribution
10.5.4 Instrumentation for commissioning and operation
10.5.4.1 Cooling Tower Instrumentation
10.5.4.2 Heat Exchanger Instrumentation
10.6 WATER TREATMENT
10.6.1 Closed Circuit Systems
10.6.2 Open circuit evaporative systems
10.6.2.1 Chemical treatment programs
10.6.2.2 Concentration factors
10.6.2.3 Blowdown or purge
10.6.2.4 Make-up
10.6.2.5 Filtration
10.6.2.6 Control of treatment
10.6.2.7 Chemical Treatment Companies
10.6.3 Batch systems
10.7 COMMISSIONING OF COOLING WATER SYSTEMS
10.7.1 Pressure testing
10.7.2 Pre-treatment of Equipment
10.7.3 Acceptance testing of the cooling tower
10.8 OPERATION
10.8.3 Performance Testing of Cooling Towers>
10.8.3.1 Measurement of Air Rate
10.8.3.2 Water Distribution
10.8.1 Heat exchangers
10.8.2 Operation of Cooling Towers
10.9 MAINTENANCE
10.9.1 Cleaning of the system
10.9.2 Inspection of Heat Exchangers
10.9.3 Cooling Tower Maintenance
10.9.4 Storage of Spares
REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER 10
CHAPTER 11 - HEATING AND COOLING OF BATCH PROCESSES
11.1 INTRODUCTION
11.2 CASES COVERED
11.3 DEVELOPMENT OF THE METHOD
11.3.1 Assumptions
11.3.2 Basic equations
11.4 APPLICATION OF THE METHOD
11.4.1 Determining the behaviour of an existing system
11.4.2 Specifying the heat transfer duty for a new system
11.5 HEAT TRANSFER TO AGITATED VESSELS WITH JACKETS OR COILS
11.5.1 Service side coefficients
11.5.1.1 Coils
11.5.1.2 Jackets
11.5.2 Process side coefficients
APPENDIX A11.1 Derivation of the equations
APPENDIX A11.2 Worked examples
REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER 11
NOMENCLATURE FOR CHAPTER 11
INDEX
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
PREFACE
FOREWORD