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Scientific Principles of Drying Technology

ISBN:
978-1-56700-236-2 (Druckformat)

Scientific Principles of Drying Technology

Beschreibung

Drying is among the most commonly used, complex, important and energy-consuming processes. In all industrial branches and agriculture, tens of thousands of diverse products is unrealistic and uneconomical. Therefore, standard driers, which are fairly efficient within a large group of materials are being designed and used. Classification of wet materials, proposed by A.V. Luikov into three groups: capillary-porous, colloidal, and colloidal capillary-porous is very important as is drying with account for the energy of moisture binding to the classification of the materials to be dried. The authors are concerned here on examining the scientific principles of designing highly efficient standard driers. The book is of interest and is recommended to both academic and industrial readers. The Table of Contents for this book is as follows: Part I, Scientific Principles of Development of Efficient Drying Devices and Rational Drying Method (Chapter 1 Drying Statics and Kinetics; Chapter 2 Comprehensive Analysis of Materials as Drying Objects; Chapter 3 Hydrodynamics of Drying Devices, Chapter 4 Heat and Mass Transfer in Drying; and Chapter 5 Mathematical Models of Drying Devices with Suspension Bed of Dispersed Material), Part II Selection and Computation of Driers and Drying Units (Chapter 6 Principles of Selection of Rational Drying Method and Type of Drier; Chapter 7 Dust Removal; Chapter 8 Calculation of Drying Devices; and Chapter 9 Selection and Calculation of Dust Collectors), and Part III Exergy Analysis of Operation of Drying Devices (Chapter 10 Calculation of Exergy of Heat Carriers; Chapter 11 Calculation of Exergy Indices of Operation of Drying Devices; Chapter 12 Analysis of Operating Efficiency of Drying Equipment Using Exergy Methods; and Chapter 13 Methods of Reducing Energy Losses and Optimizing Operating Conditions in the Drying Device.



509 pages, © 2007

Inhaltsverzeichnis:

Introduction
Part I SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPMENT OF EFFICIENT DRYING DEVICES AND RATIONAL DRYING METHOD
Chapter 1 Drying Statics and Kinetics
1.1 Main Factors Determining the Drying Process
1.2 Conditions of Thermodynamic Equilibrium in Drying. Isotherms of Sorption–Desorption
1.3 Driving Force of Drying and Ways of Expressing It
1.4 Thermal and Diffusion Resistance in Drying
1.5 Drying Curves, Drying Rate and Duration
1.6 Specific Features of Convective and Conductive Drying
1.7 Effect of the Superposition of Energy Fields on Drying
Nomenclature
Chapter 2 Comprehensive Analysis of Materials as Drying Objects
2.1 Basic Characteristics of Materials as Drying Objects
2.2 Forms of Moisture Binding to the Material. Thermal and Energy Graphs of Drying
2.3 Sorption-Structural Characteristics of Dispersed Materials
2.4 Thermal Characteristics
2.5 Methods of Classification of Wet Materials as Drying Objects
Nomenclature
Chapter 3 Hydrodynamics of Drying Devices
3.1 Basic Factors Determining Hydrodynamics of Drying Devices
3.2 Basic Concepts of Devices with Active Hydrodynamic Regimes
3.3 Main Hydrodynamic Regimes of Suspension Bed and Their Characteristics
3.4 Hydrodynamics of Fluidized-Bed Driers
3.5 Spouting Regimes and the Range of Application of Spouted-Bed Driers
3.6 Hydrodynamic Regime of Vortex Driers
3.7 Hydrodynamic Regime of Nonentrainment Driers with Opposing Coaxial Vortex Flows
3.8 Standard Mathematical Models of Hydrodynamic Regimes of Drying Devices
Nomenclature
Chapter 4 Heat and Mass Transfer in Drying
4.1 Characterization of Technological Problems of Drying
4.2 Heat and Mass Transfer in the Case of Balance and External Problems
4.3 Heat and Mass Transfer in the Solution of the Internal Problem
4.4 Specific Features of Heat and Mass Transfer in the Solution of the Complex Problem
4.5 Necessary Drying Time
4.6 Novel Method of Calculating Drying
Nomenclature
Chapter 5 Mathematical Models of Drying Devices with Suspension Bed of Dispersed Material
5.1 General Characteristic of the Models and Methods of Modeling of Drying Devices
5.2 Mathematical Description of Motion and Energy of the Gas Suspension
5.3 Mathematical Description of Hydrodynamics of Dispersed Materials in the Vortex Chamber
5.4 Mathematical Model of the Velocity Field of the Gas Phase with the Interaction of Coaxial Vortex Flows
5.5 Modeling of Drying of Dispersed Materials in the Nonentrainment Drier
5.6 Mathematical Description of Drying Kinetics with Account for the Material Disaggregation in the Air-Spout Drying Device
5.7 Combined Hydrodynamic Model of Spouted Bed with Additional Heat Carrier Inlets Placed Chordwise
Nomenclature
Part II SELECTION AND COMPUTATION OF DRIERS AND DRYING UNITS
Chapter 6 Principles of Selection of Rational Drying Method and Type of Drier
6.1 General Approach to the Problem of Selecting the Drying Method and Type of the Drier
6.2 Calculation of the Drying Time Based on Comprehensive Analysis of Materials as Drying Objects
6.3 Selection and Calculation of the Standard Drying Device
6.4 Selection of Rational Type of the Device and Drying Regime for Low-Pressure Polyethylene
Nomenclature
Chapter 7 Dust Removal
7.1 Dust Removal Systems
7.2 Vortex Dust Collectors
7.3 Efficiency of Gas Cleaning in Vortex Dust Collectors
Nomenclature
Chapter 8 Calculation of Drying Devices
8.1 General Calculating Procedure for Drying Devices
8.2 Calculation of Pneumatic Driers
8.3 Calculation of Spray Driers
8.4 Calculation of Combined Driers
8.5 Calculation of Fluidized-Bed Driers
8.6 Calculation of Drum Drier (concurrent drier with distribution packing)
8.7 Calculation of Band Driers
Nomenclature
Chapter 9 Selection and Calculation of Dust Collectors
9.1 Comparison of OCVF Dust Collectors and Cyclones
9.2 Comparison of OCVF and VDC Dust Collectors
9.3 Selection and Calculation of OCVF Dust Collector
9.4 Selection and Calculation of Dust Collectors for Finely Disperse Dusts
9.5 Technical Economic Optimization of Dust Collectors
Nomenclature
Part III EXERGY ANALYSIS OF OPERATION OF DRYING DEVICES
Chapter 10 Calculation of Exergy of Heat Carriers
10.1 Basic Concepts
10.2 Calculation of Exergy
10.3 Exergy Indices of the Process Efficiency
Nomenclature
Chapter 11 Calculation of Exergy Indices of Operation of Drying Devices
11.1 Calculational Procedure
11.2 Calculation of Batch Units
11.3 Calculation of Continuous Units
11.4 Calculation of Closed-Cycle Units
Nomenclature
Chapter 12 Analysis of Operating Efficiency of Drying Equipment Using Exergy Methods
12.1 Operating Efficiency of Heat Exchangers
12.2 Operating Efficiency of Furnaces
12.3 Drying Efficiency
12.4 Processes with Active Hydrodynamic Regimes
12.5 Processes with Recirculation of the Heat Carrier
Nomenclature
Chapter 13 Methods of Reducing Energy Losses and Optimizing Operating Conditions in the Drying Device
13.1 The Use of the Method of Thermal Pump
13.2 Technological Methods of Decreasing the Energy Consumption in Convective Drying Devices
13.3 Methods of Improving the Operating Efficiency of the Auxiliary Heat Exchanging Equipment
13.4 Selection of Thermodynamic Parameters of Heat Carriers in Recuperative Heat Exchangers
13.5 Selection of Drying Agent Parameters
13.6 Thermoeconomic Optimization Based on the Exergy Method
13.7 Thermoeconomic Optimization of Parameters of Fluidized-Bed Driers
Nomenclature
References
Index