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Contemporary Perspectives on Liquid Cold Plate Design: Design and Manufacturing Liquid Cooled Heat Sinks for Electronics Cooling

978-1-56700-281-2 (Print)
978-1-56700-285-0 (Online)

Contemporary Perspectives on Liquid Cold Plate Design: Design and Manufacturing Liquid Cooled Heat Sinks for Electronics Cooling

C. H. Hayner

Mark E. Steinke
Mechanical Engineering Department, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York 14623, USA

Satish G. Kandlikar
Mechanical Engineering Department, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York 14623, USA


The field of electronics cooling has routinely encountered the high heat flux removal that cannot be handled by air cooling systems. The design and application of liquid cooled cold plates is an important aspect of being able to provide cooling for these high heat flux technologies. The intent of this book is to provide the reader with the approach to designing and implementing liquid cold plates. The book will describe the methods to designing liquid cold plates. The fundamental theory behind the heat transfer and fluid mechanics occurring in the cold plates is presented. A state of art review of cold plate developments and industrial practices is included to familiarize the reader with the possible alternatives. One of the highlights of the book is the inclusion of a detailed insight into manufacturing techniques for producing conventional and custom-made liquid cold plates. Some of the common issues and complexities related to manufacturing these cold plates are also presented as case studies. Finally, a few examples of utilizing liquid cold plates are provided. The book is written by a team of three recognized leaders in the field of electronics cooling technology. Cliff Hayner compiled his lifetime industrial experience on designing and manufacturing the cold plates before his sad demise during the production of the book. He provided the manufacturing insight that is rarely discussed in cold plate design literature. Mark Steinke is an accomplished researcher working at IBM, Research Triangle Park, NC. Satish Kandlikar, a professor at Rochester Institute of Technology, has been engaged in advanced cooling system research for over thirty years. The book presents a unique combination of the three complimentary viewpoints in guiding the reader through the entire design and manufacturing process. The book is also intended to serve as a textbook for graduate level courses and special workshops for cold plate design.

Table of Contents:

Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1. Introduction
1.2. High-Power Electronics Cooling
1.3. Microelectronics Cooling
1.4. Working Fluids
1.5. Scope and Coverage
Chapter 2. Review of Cold Plate Literature
2.1. Introdouction
2.2. Research and Advancements
2.3. Industrial Cold Plates
2.4. Concluding Remarks
Chapter 3. Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Heat Transfer in Cold Plates
3.2.1 Conduction Heat Transfer
3.2.2 Convection Heat Transfer
3.2.3 Radiation Heat Transfer
3.2.4 Thermal Resistance
3.2.5 Basic Heat Transfer Conditions
3.3. Fluid Mechanics in Cold Plates
3.3.1 Geometrical Considerations
3.3.2 Fluid Flow Considerations
3.3.3 Fully Developed and Developing Flow
3.3.4 Pressure Drop
3.3.5 Frictional Pressure Drop in Fully Developed Laminar Flow
3.3.6 Pressure Drop in Turbulent Flow
3.4. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients in Channels
3.4.1 Laminar Fully Developed Flow
3.4.2 Laminar Developing Flow
3.4.3 Turbulent Flow
3.5. Energy Efficiency in Cold Plates
3.5.1 Introduction
3.5.2 Thermal Efficiency
3.5.3 Thermofluid Coefficient of Performance
Chapter 4. Design and Manufacturing of Cold Plates
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Cold Plate Classifications
4.2.1 Formed Tube Cold Plates (FTCPs)
4.2.2 Deep Drilled Cold Plates (DDCPs)
4.2.3 Machined Channel Cold Plates (MCCPs)
4.2.4 Pocket Folded-Fin Cold Plates (PFCPs)
4.2.5 Microchannel Cold Plates (MCPs)
4.3. Designing Cold Plates
4.3.1 Total Heat Load
4.3.2 Temperature Specifications and Heat Distribution
4.3.3 Allotted Space
4.3.4 Working Fluid
4.3.5 Volumetric Flow Rate
4.3.6 Available Pressure Drop
4.3.7 Material Selections
4.3.8 Fluidic Connections
4.3.9 Cold Plate Mounting
4.3.10 Special Customer Requirements
4.3.11 Initial Cold Plate Design
4.4. Manufacturing Cold Plates
4.4.1 Material Selection
4.4.2 Weight Concerns
4.4.3 Machine Tooling Selections
4.4.4 Machine Programming
4.4.5 Unnecessary Dimensioning on Specifications and Drawings
4.4.6 Fixtures and Jaws
4.4.7 General Cold Plate Machining Processes
4.4.8 Manifolds in Cold Plates
4.4.9 Inspections During Manufacturing Processing
4.4.10 Surface Finishing
4.4.11 Epoxy Bonding
4.4.12 Soldering Copper Cold Plate
4.4.13 Welding and Brazing Issues
4.4.14 Folded-Fin Types and Considerations
4.4.15 Dissimilar Metals
4.4.16 Coatings and Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS)
4.4.17 Microchannel Cold Plates
4.4.18 Testing for Function and Quality Assurance
4.4.19 Packaging and Shipping
4.5. Design Examples
4.5.1 LED Cold Plate
4.5.2 High–Power-Component Cold Plate
4.5.3 Microchannel Cold Plate
4.6. Closing Remarks