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Chemistry and Technology of Oil Refining

ISBN:
978-1-56700-419-9 (Print)
978-1-56700-420-5 (Online)

Chemistry and Technology of Oil Refining

Vladimir Kapustin
All-Russian Research and Design Institute for Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry

Mikhail Rudin
Worley Parsons

Description

Dear Readers,
Your attention is invited to a textbook intended for bachelors, masters, postgraduates, students of petroleum secondary schools, specialists in the field of oil refining and petrochemicals, scientists working at universities and research institutes.
A textbook of this sort was published for the last time about 30 years ago, in 1985, i.e., during the Soviet Era. Since then major changes in oil-refining technologies have occurred; the requirements to petroleum product quality and their environmental properties have been raised. Hydrogenation and thermal catalytic processes have been widely implemented, an oil conversion ratio has been rapidly increased, there have been a significant growth in the field of process automation, and the methods of refinery design have been changed.
This textbook fills in the resultant gap. It covers a wide range of problems related to oil refining. A wide range of modern basic processes for petroleum feedstock conversion is presented and set forth in Layman's terms; the emphasis is on efficient technologies for processing oil residues.
The textbook gives sufficiently complete characteristics of the modern oil conversion processes. Particular attention was given to process flow diagrams of process units; modes and features of vessel operation were reviewed in detail; chemism and mechanisms of basic reactions are presented for every process. The textbook discusses in detail the issues related to the use of modern catalysts and states the effect of changing the feedstock composition on the catalyst activity. The chapters dealing with the configurations of modern refineries are of considerable interest. The detailed description of off-site facilities is especially noteworthy.
The reason for the relevancy of the textbook is that nowadays the RF Government has set a task to carry out the speedy modernization of the Russian oil-refining industry aimed at improving the petroleum product quality, in order to bring it up to the European norm requirements and drastically increase the oil conversion ratio. I am certain that the publication of Chemistry and Technology of Oil Refining textbook by V. N. Kapustin and M. G. Rudin will be a significant event in the higher school life.
S. N. Khadzhiev
Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Director
A. V. Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Russian Academy of Sciences

Table of Contents:

Preface
INTRODUCTION
Part I: PROPERTIES OF CRUDE OIL AND OIL PRODUCTS. CRUDE OIL DISTILLATION
CHAPTER 1 CRUDE OIL AND ITS ROLE IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY
1.1 Crude Oil and Natural Hydrocarbon Gases
1.2 Historical Overview
CHAPTER 2 CHEMICAL NATURE AND COMPOSITION OF CRUDE OIL, ASSOCIATED GAS, AND GAS CONDENSATE
2.1 Composition of Associated Gas and Gas Condensate
2.2 Crude Oil Composition
2.2.1 Crude Oil Chemical Composition
2.2.2 Heteroatomic Compounds in Crude Oil
2.3 Crude Oil Fractional Composition
CHAPTER 3 BASIC PROPERTIES OF CRUDE OIL AND OIL PRODUCTS
3.1 Density
3.2 Molecular Mass
3.3 Saturated Vapor Pressure
3.4 Critical Parameters
3.5 Viscosity
3.6 Temperature Characteristics
3.7 Elecrtical and Optical Properties
3.8 Oil and Hydrocarbon Solvency
3.9 Major Thermal Properties of Hydrocarbons and Oil Fractions
3.10 Colloidal-Chemical Properties. Oil Disperse Systems
CHAPTER 4 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ASSAY OF CRUDE OIL AND OIL PRODUCTS
4.1 Crude Oil and Oil Products Separation Methods
4.1.1 Distillation
4.1.2 Fractionation
4.1.3 Adsorption
4.1.4 Extraction
4.1.5 Crystallization
4.2 Crude Oil and Oil Products Assay
4.2.1 Crude Oil Analysis
4.2.2 Light Distillate Analysis
CHAPTER 5 CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE OILS AND OIL PRODUCTS AND THEIR PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES
5.1 Classifi cation of Crude Oils
5.2 Classifi cation of Associated Petroleum Gas and Gas Condensate
5.3 Classifi cation of Oil Products
5.3.1 Liquid Fuel
5.3.2 Lubricants
5.3.3 Paraffi n and Ceresin
5.3.4 Bitumen
5.3.5 Technical Carbon
5.3.6 Petroleum Coke
5.3.7 Various-Purpose Oil Products
5.4 Biofuel
5.5 Notion of Chemmotology and Fuel and Oil Quality. Evaluation Methods
CHAPTER 6 TREATMENT OF CRUDE OIL AND GAS CONDENSATE PRIOR TO REFINING
6.1 Field Gathering, Treatment, and Stabilization of Crude Oil and Gas Condensate
6.1.1 Crude Oil Stabilization
6.1.2 Gas Condensate Stabilization
6.2 Crude Oil Desalting and Dewatering
CHAPTER 7 DISTILLATION OF CRUDE OIL, GAS CONDENSATE, AND ASSOCIATED GAS
7.1 General Information on Crude Oil Distillation
7.2 Basic Equipment of Crude Oil Primary Distillation Units
7.2.1 Fractionators
7.2.2 Tubular Heaters
7.2.3 Heat Exchangers
7.2.4 Pumps
7.3 Atmospheric Vacuum Distillation Units
7.3.1 Crude Oil Atmospheric Distillation Units
7.3.2 Atmospheric Residue Vacuum Distillation Units
7.3.3 Integrated Atmospheric Vacuum Distillation Unit
7.3.4 Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Rerun Distillation Units
7.3.5 Corrosion Prevention Measures at Atmospheric and Vacuum Distillation Units
7.3.6 Crude Distillation Units Operation Basics
7.3.7 Health and Labor Safety
7.4 Associated Gas Processing. Gas Processing Plants
7.5 Gas Condensate Processing
Part II: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR OIL AND GAS FEEDSTOCK CONVERSION
CHAPTER 8 THERMAL PROCESSES
8.1 Thermodynamic Principles of Thermal Processes
8.2 Mechanism of Thermal Transformations of Hydrocarbons
8.3 Infl uence of Various Factors on Hydrocarbon Feed Refi ning Processes
8.4 Commercial Thermal Processes of Oil and Gas Feedstock Refi ning
8.4.1 Thermal Cracking of Heavy Distillate and Residual Feed Under Pressure
8.4.2 Visbreaking (Light Thermal Cracking)
8.4.3 Petroleum Pitch Production
8.4.4 Technical Carbon (Carbon Black) Production
8.4.5 Coking
8.4.6 Hydrocarbon Feed Cracking
8.4.7 Thermal Hydrocracking of Residual FeedcUnder Pressure
8.4.8 Asphalt Production
CHAPTER 9 THERMOCATALYTIC PROCESSING OF OIL CUTS
9.1 Basic Information on Catalysis and Catalyst Performance
9.2 Crude Stock Catalytic Cracking
9.2.1 Catalytic Cracking Catalysts and Mechanism
9.2.2 Feedstock, Main Parameters of the Catalytic Cracking Process and End Products
9.2.3 Commercial Catalytic Cracking Units
9.3 Catalytic Reforming Catalysts and Mechanism
9.3.1 Chemism, Mechanism, and Thermodynamics of the Process
9.3.2 Reforming Catalysts
9.3.3 Feedstock, Parameters of Catalytic Reforming Process and Products
9.3.4 Commercial Catalytic Reforming Units
9.3.5 Apparatuses and Equipment of Catalytic Reforming Units
9.4 Isomerization of Light Paraffi n Hydrocarbons
9.4.1 Isomerization Mechanism and Catalysts
9.4.2 Principal Factors that Govern Isomerization Processes
9.4.3 Commercial Isomerization Units
CHAPTER 10 THERMAL CATALYTIC HYDROGENATION PROCESSES
10.1 Hydrotreatment of Oil Feedstock
10.1.1 The Chemical Aspects of the Process Crude Oil Feedstock Hydrotreatment and Catalysts
10.1.2 Main Factors Affecting the Hydrotreatment Process
10.1.3 Commercial Distillate Hydrotreatment Plants
10.2 Hydrocracking
10.2.1 Hydrocracking Chemism and Mechanism
10.2.2 Key Factors Affecting Hydrocracking Process
10.2.3 Commercial Hydrocracking Flow Schemes
CHAPTER 11 PETROLEUM PRODUCT TREATMENT METHODS
11.1 Physical Methods of Treatment
11.1.1 Adsorption Treatment of Oil Products
11.1.2 Oil Product Dewaxing
11.1.3 Selective Treatment and Deasphalting
11.2 Physical and Chemical Methods of Oil Product Treatment
11.2.1 Alkali Treatment of Oil Products
11.2.2 Sulfuric Acid Treatment of Oil Products
11.2.3 Mercaptan Oxidation (Catalytic Demercaptanization)
CHAPTER 12 REFINERY GAS PROCESSING
12.1 Refi nery Gas Specifi cations
12.2 Refi nery Gas Treatment and Drying
12.3 Gas Separation
12.4 Refi nery Gas Processing
12.4.1 Alkylation of Branched Alkanes with Alkenes
12.4.2 Polymerization (Oligomerization) of Olefi nes
12.4.3 n-Butane Isomerization
12.4.4 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) and Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) Production
12.4.5 Hydrogen Sulfi de Processing
12.4.6 Sulfuric Acid Production
12.5 Hydrogen Plants
12.5.1 Hydrogen Production with Steam Catalytic Conversion of Hydrocarbons
12.6 Production of Synthetic Liquid Fuel
12.6.1 Production of Alternative Gasoline
12.6.2 Synthetic Diesel Fuel Production
Part III: LUBRICANT PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
CHAPTER 13 SALES PETROLEUM LUBE OIL PRODUCTION
13.1 Production of Oil Cuts and Vacuum Residue by Vacuum Distillation of Atmospheric Residue
13.2 Production of Base Oil Components
13.2.1 Solvent Deasphalting of Residues
13.2.2 Lube Feedstock Selective Treatment
13.2.3 Low-Temperature Dewaxing of Selective Solvent Treatment Raffi nate. Slack Wax Deoiling
13.2.4 Base Oil Adsorption Treatment
13.2.5 Acid and Caustic Treatment of Oils
13.2.6 Hydrogenation Processes in Oil Production
13.2.7 Synthetic Oil Production
13.2.8 Base Oil Production Flow Diagrams
13.3 Production of Oil Additives
13.4 Commercial Oil Production
13.5 Spent Oil Recovery
CHAPTER 14 PRODUCTION OF GREASES AND LUBRICANT-COOLING AGENTS
14.1 Production of Greases
14.2 Production of Lubricant-Cooling Agents (LCAs)
Part IV: OFF-SITE FACILITIES OF OIL REFINERY
CHAPTER 15 OFF-SITE FACILITIES OF OIL REFINERY
15.1 Crude Oil and Oil Products Acceptance and Transportation
15.2 Sales Product Blending
15.2.1 Gasoline Blending
15.2.2 Blending of Fuel for Jet and Diesel Engines
15.2.3 Fuel Oil Blending
15.2.4 Sales Oil Blending
15.3 Crude Oil and Oil Product Storage
15.4 Refi nery Utilities
15.4.1 Heat Supply
15.4.2 Power Supply
15.4.3 Fuel Supply System
15.4.4 Water Supply, Sewage, Wastewater Treatment
15.5 Air and Inert Gas Supply. Flare System
15.5.1 Air Supply
15.5.2 Inert Gas Supply
15.5.3 Flare System
15.6 Storage Facilities
CHAPTER 16 MODERN OIL REFINERY
16.1 Main Flow Charts of Modern Oil Refi neries
16.2 Engineering. Oil Refi nery Design Basis
16.2.1 General Information on Engineering and Design Management
16.2.2 Design
16.3 Protection of Atmospheric Air and Water Bodies against Pollution from Refi nery Emissions
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