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Magnetic Fluids and Applications Handbook

ISBN:
1-57600-062-2 (Imprimir)

Magnetic Fluids and Applications Handbook

B. M. Berkovsky
UNESCO, Paris, France

V. Bashtovoy
Belarusian State Polytechnical Academy, Minsk, Belarus

Descripción

The objective of this handbook is to provide a working guide to magnetic fluids. In the handbook, the concepts and basic principles have been explained in a simple manner, but the significance fully described; and sufficient examples are presented in regard to the use of the theory in practical situations. The liquid and magnetic phenomena, the core of magnetic fluid technology, are described in an easy-to-understand format. The fundamental characteristics of magnetic fluids along with measurement techniques are discussed. The design and operational principles of magnetic fluid devices are explained in detail with a view towards assisting the user with an in-depth understanding of the technology. The handbook is user-friendly. Magnetic fluids and related topics are presented in such a manner that the engineer quickly learns about this field and becomes efficient in the use of the technology. Students and academics should also find the book to be valuable because of its basic nature and broad subject matter.



831 pages, © 1996

Tabla de Contenidos:

LIST OF AUTHORS
Parts of this book have been written in the following way
PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
INTRODUCTION, by B.Berkovski
LIST OF MAIN SYMBOLS
1 PHYSICO-CHEMISTRY OF MAGNETIC FLUIDS: PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES
1.1 INTRODUCTION, by S. Charles
1.2 PARTICLES SUITABLE FOR MAGNETIC COLLOIDS, by S.Charles and R, Massart
1.2.1 Which Magnetic Materials are Suitable for Magnetic Fluids?
1.2.2 Ferrites
1.2.3 Metals
1.2.4 Chemical Stability of Particles
1.3 PARTICLE SIZE DETERMINATION IN MAGNETIC FLUIDS, by V.Cabuil and R. Perzynski
1.4 DISPERSION OF THE PARTICLES IN THE BASE LIQUID, by R. Massart
1.4.1 Which Carriers are Used?
1.4.2 How to Make Particles Compatible with Solvent
1.5 COLLOIDAL STABILITY OF MAGNETIC FLUIDS, by V. Cabuil, J.C. Bacri, R. Perzynski, and Yu. Raikher
1.5.1 General Features
1.5.2 Experimental Observations
1.5.3 Quantitative Results
1.5.4 Discussion
1.5.5 Conclusion
1.6 COMPLEX MAGNETIC SYSTEMS DERIVED FROM MAGNETIC FLUIDS, by V. Cabuil and S. Neveu
1.6.1 Magnetic Fluids and Polymers (Films, Microspheres, Gels)
1.6.2 Multiphase Magnetic Systems
1.6.3 Magnetic Composites
1.6.4 Products for Magnetic Labeling of Cells and NMR Contrast Agents
1.7 PROPERTIES OF MAGNETIC FLUIDS
1.7.1 Magnetic Properties, by S. Charles
1.7.2 Optical Properties of Magnetic Fluids, by J.C. Bacri and R. Perzynski
1.7.3 Viscosity of Magnetic Fluids, by J.C. Bacri, R. Perzynski, and V. Cabuil
1.7.4 Magnetic Wetting, by J.C. Bacri, R. Perzynski and D. Salin
1.7.5 Thermal Conductivity of Magnetic Fluids, by J. Popplewell
1.8 CHARACTERIZATION EQUIPMENT FOR MAGNETIC FLUIDS
1.8.1 Measurement of the Frequency Dependent Complex Susceptibility, by P.C. Fannin
1.8.2 Scattering: X-Ray, Neutron and Electron, by A.C. Nunes
1.9 MAGNETORHEOLOGICAL SYSTEMS AND THEIR APPLICATION, by Z. Shulman
1.9.1 MRSs - General Comments
1.9.2 Rheological Behavior of MRSs
1.9.3 Theory
1.9.4 Rheological Characteristics
1.9.5 Thermophysical Properties
1.9.6 Some Applications
1.9.7 Appendix A. Other Rheological Rzelations
1.9.8 Appendix B. Magnetic Relaxation in Ferrosuspensions
1.10 CATALOGUE AND DESCRIPTION OF THE PROCESSES: THREE TYPICAL PREPARATION PROCEDURES FOR MAGNETIC FLUIDS, by S. Charles and R. Massart
1.10.1 Oxide Particles Dispersed in Hydrocarbons
1.10.2 Ionic Magnetic Fluids
1.10.3 Metal Particles Dispersed in Nonpolar Carriers
REFERENCES
2 BASIC PHYSICAL, MATHEMATICAL AND COMPUTER SIMULATION MODELS by A. Cebers
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 MAGNETIZATION STATICS AND DYNAMICS
2.2.1 Single-domain particles
2.2.2 Magnetic Anisotropy
2.2.3 Magnetic Colloid Magnetization Curves
2.2.4 The Effect of Particle Magnetic Interactions
2.3 DYNAMICS OF MAGNETIC COLLOID MAGNETIZATION
2.3.1 Equations of Motion of a Magnetic Moment and Single-Domain Particle
2.3.2 Mechanisms of Magnetic Relaxation and Main Approximations of Its Description
2.3.3 The Magnetic Susceptibility Dispersion
2.4 MAGNETIC COLLOID ANISOTROPY
2.4.1 Magnetic Birefringence
2.4.2 Magnetic Birefringence Kinetics
2.4.3 Electrooptical Effects in Magnetic Colloids
2.5 THERMODYNAMICS OF MAGNETIC COLLOID PHASE SEPARATION
2.5.1 Introduction
2.5.2 Magnetic Interactions and Equations of State of Magnetic Colloids
2.5.3 Thermodynamic Relations at Phase Equilibrium in the Field
2.5.4 Thermodynamics of Magnetic Colloid Periodic Structure Formation
2.5.5 Periodic Structure at Small Magnetic Overcooling
2.5.6 Multilayer Concentration Structures
2.5.7 Kinetics of Periodic Structure Formation
2.5.8 Thermodynamics of Developed Concentration Structures
2.6 MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF MAGNETIC FLUIDS
2.6.1 Basic Principles of Model Construction
2.6.2 Quasi-static Model
2.6.3 The Model Accounting for the Magnetic Relaxation Processes
2.6.4 A Model of a Magnetic Colloid with the Particle Orientation Distribution Function as an Internal Parameter of State
2.6.5 The Model with Internal Angular Momentum
2.6.6 The Model Considering Couple Stresses and Internal Angular Momentum
2.6.7 The Model with Couple Stresses
2.6.8 The Model Accounting for Relative Component Motion (Diffusional Approximation)
2.6.9 The Model of Interpenetrating Magnetic Continua
2.7 COMPUTER MODELS OF MAGNETIC FLUIDS
2.7.1 Brownian Dynamics of Magnetic Dipoles
2.7.2 Magnetic Rheology of Suspensions of Anisotropic Ferromagnetic Particles
2.7.3 Method of Simulated Annealing and Equilibrium Configurations of Magnetic Dipoles
2.7.4 Figures of Equilibrium of a Magnetic Fluids Drop in Flat Slots
2.7.5 Dynamics of Magnetic Fluid Displacement Front in a Flat Slot
2.7.6 Magnetic Fluid Free Drop Dynamics in a Field
3 FLUID MECHANICAL PHENOMENA
3.1 STATICS OF MAGNETIC FLUIDS, by V. Bashtovoi
3.1.1 Governing Equations and Boundary Conditions
3.1.2 Pressure Distribution and Floating of Bodies in Magnetic Fluid
3.1.3 Equilibrium Shape of the Surface of Magnetic Fluid at Rest
3.1.4 Instability of Magnetic Fluid Flat Surface
3.1.5 Instabilities and Structures of Magnetic Fluids in Flat Layers by A. Cebers
3.1.6 Instabilities of Magnetic Fluid Cylindrical Volumes
3.1.7 Breakup of Magnetic Fluid Volumes in a Uniform Magnetic Field (Topological Instability)
3.2 BASIC EQUATIONS OF HYDRODYNAMICS, by S. Kamiyama and K. Koike
3.2.1 Magnetic Body Force
3.2.2 Quasi-Stationary Hydrodynamics of Magnetic Fluids .
3.2.3 Treatment as a Micropolar fluids
3.2.4 Generalized Bernoulli Equation
3.3 PIPE FLOW PROBLEMS, by S. Kamiyama and K. Koike
3.3.1 Theoretical Analysis of Steady Laminar Flow
3.3.2 Pipe Flow Resistance in Laminar and Turbulent Flow
3.3.3 Unsteady Flow
3.3.4 Gas-Liquid Two-phase Flow
3.4 FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER CONTROL BY MAGNETIC FLUIDS, by M.S.Kratov
3.4.1 Introduction
3.4.2 Shape of Magnetofluid Coatings in Real Magnetic Fields
3.4.3 Drag reduction
3.4.4 Heat Transfer Enhancement
3.4.5 Deformation and Stability of Magnetofluid Coatings
3.5 THERMOMAGNETIC CONVECTION, by B. Berkovski
3.5.1 Mechanical Equilibrium Condition. Thermomagnetic Convection Mechanism
3.5.2 Governing Equations
3.5.3 Thermoconvective Flows
3.5.4 Thermocapillary Convective Flow
3.5.5 Thermoconvective Instability
3.5.6 Application of Thermomagnetic Convection
3.5.7 Concentrational Convection, by E. Blums
3.5.8 Particle Stratification Effect on the Convective Stability, by E. Blums
REFERENCES
4 CONCEPTUAL APPLICATIONS OF MAGNETIC FLUIDS by R. E. Rosensweig
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.1.1 Definition of Subject Matter
4.1.2 Basis of the Applications
4.2 DEVICE APPLICATIONS
4.2.1 Magnetoresistance Devices
4.2.2 Magnetic Fluid Seal for Liquids
4.2.3 Optical Displays
4.2.4 Magneto-Optical Concepts
4.2.5 Magnetocentrifugal Separators
4.2.6 Levitational Bearing
4.2.7 Magnetic Fluid Hydroacoustic Projector
4.3 PROCESS APPLICATIONS
4.3.1 Thermoconvective Processes
4.3.2 Drag Reduction and Heat Transfer
4.3.3 Prevention of Turbulence in Fluidization
4.3.4 Reduction of Greenhouse CO2
4.3.5 Porous Media Flow
4.4 MATERIAL SYNTHESIS
4.4.1 Ferromagnetic Fluids
4.4.2 Superdiamagnetic Fluid
4.4.3 Composite Materials
4.5 MEDICAL APPLICATIONS
4.5.1 Bone Marrow Treatment
4.5.2 Prosthetics
4.5.3 Drug Delivery and Other Applications
4.6 SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS
4.6.1 Earth Core Model
4.6.2 Labyrinthine Patterns
4.6.3 Study of Electrostatic Atomization
4.7 CONCLUSIONS
4.7.1 Other Concepts
4.7.2 Prognosis
REFERENCES
5 MAGNETIC FLUIDS AND DEVICES: A COMMERCIAL SURVEY by K. Raj
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 MAGNETIC FLUIDS
5.3 PROCESS SEALS
5.3.1 Semiconductors
5.3.2 Ion Implanter
5.3.3 Sputtering System
5.3.4 Crystal Growing Systems
5.3.5 Co-axial Seal
5.3.6 Photoresist Spinner
5.3.7 Sealing of Two Environments
5.3.8 High Pressure Seal
5.3.9 X-ray Rotating Anode
5.3.10 Tire Seal
5.3.11 Seal for Production of Optical Fibers
5.3.12 High Altitude Telescope Seal
5.3.13 Excimer Lasers
5.3.14 Lamp Manufacturing Machine
5.3.15 Electron Beam Evaporators
5.4 EXCLUSION SEALS
5.4.1 Bearing Protection
5.4.2 Angle of Attack Sensor Seal
5.4.3 Camera Seal
5.4.4 Sealing of Manipulator
5.4.5 Robots
5.4.6 Autopilot Actuator Seal
5.4.7 Fuel Element Fabrication
5.4.8 Capstan Sealed Spindle
5.4.9 Large Diameter “Slim” Seal
5.4.10 Exclusion Seal for Boring Machine
5.4.11 Belt Edge Seal
5.5 MAGNETIC FLUID FILM BEARINGS
5.5.1 Disk Drive Spindle
5.5.2 Laser Scanners
5.6 MOVING-COIL SPEAKER
5.6.1 Midrange Compression Driver
5.7 INERTIA DAMPERS
5.7.1 X-Y Plotter
5.7.2 Motion Picture Projector
5.7.3 Wafer TVansport System
5.7.4 AC Servomotor
5.7.5 Photoplotter
5.8 NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
5.9 MAGNETIC RECORDING
5.9.1 Instrument Tape Domain Patterns
5.9.2 Forensic Applications of Magnetic Fluids
5.10 MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS
5.10.1 Magnetic Fluid Accelerometer
5.10.2 Magnetic Fluid as a Catalyst
5.10.3 Liquid Eyeliner
5.10.4 Anti-In continence Device
5.11 CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
6 OTHER APPLICATIONS OF MAGNETIC FLUIDS
6.1 SEPARATION OF NONMAGNETIC PARTICLES WITH MAGNETIC FLUID, by T. Fujita
6.1.1 Introduction
6.1.2 Magnetic Levitation Force on the Nonmagnetic Object in MF
6.1.3 Effect on Separation Efficiency
6.1.4 Levitation Force Measurement
6.1.5 Magnetohydrostatic Separation
6.1.6 Requirements for Materials Feeding into MF Separator
6.1.7 Magnetohydrodynamic Separation
6.1.8 Recovery of MF after Separation
6.1.9 Small Size Separation Apparatus using MF for Laboratory Experiment
6.1.10 Other Separation Methods using MF
6.2 OPTO-ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS, by S. Taketomi
6.2.1 Introduction
6.2.2 Magnetic Field Sensor
6.2.3 Optical Shutter or Optical Modulator
6.2.4 Optical Bistability Device
6.3 MAGNETIC FLUID GRINDING, by K.Kato and N.Umehara
6.3.1 Introduction
6.3.2 The Principle of Magnetic Fluid Grinding
6.3.3 Applications of Magnetic Fluid Grinding with a Float .
6.4 PRINTER, by K. Nakatsuka
REFERENCES
7 DATABASE MAFLI 2.0, by B.Berkovski, V.Bashtavoi, A.Demenkov, M.Krakov, and A.Reks
7.1 INTRODUCTION
7.2 GETTING STARTED WITH MAFLI
7.2.1 Software and Hardware Requirements
7.2.2 Installing MAFLI 2.0
7.2.3 Starting MAFLI 2.0
7.3 MAFLI OVERVIEW
7.3.1 Contents and Structure of MAFLI Databases
7.3.2 Contents and structure of Database PATENT
7.3.3 Screen Display
7.3.4 Command Selection
7.4 THE MAFLI FUNCTIONS
7.4.1 The SELECT DATABASE Function
7.4.2 The SET FILTER Function
7.4.3 The ABORT FILTER Function
7.4.4 The ADD Function
7.4.5 The EDIT Function
7.4.6 The QUIT Function
7.4.7 The HELP Function
7.4.8 The PRINT Function
7.4.9 The GO Function
7.4.10 The LINK Function
7.4.11 The ZOOM Function
7.4.12 The DELETE Function
7.4.13 The HOT KEYS List
7.5 RANGER