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Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Microchannels

1-56700-208-0 (Print)

Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Microchannels

Gian Piero Celata
ENEA, Institute of Thermal Fluid Dynamics, ENEA TERM/ISP Heat Transfer Laboratory C.R.E.


This first book in a new series in Thermal an Fluid Physics and Engineering, edited by Professor G. F. Hewitt, is of particular importance to the field at the present time. Edited by Professor F. P. Celata, the topic of microchannels is finding a very large range of applications, particularly in the context of cooling of electronic equipment. Fluid flow and heat transfer process at the microscale bring into play many aspects that are not significant at the macro scale. The book fills a void in the existing literature and covers a large body of new knowledge in the thermal-fluid dynamics theory and applications in micro-geometries. The volume also presents a critical assessment of the state-of-the-art in the field. Intended for both academic and industrial audiences.

280 pages,
© 2004


Single Phase Fluid Flow
A. Introduction
B. Friction Factors in Incompressible Flows in Microchannels
(a) Background
(b) Deviations from classical relationships: experimental evidence
I. Experimental uncertainty
II. Effect of surface roughness
III. Effect of surface electrostatic charges
C. Laminar to Turbulent Flow Regime Transition
(a) Transition in normal sized tubes
(b) Laminar/turbulent transition in microchannels
D. Flow Compressibility Effects
Single-Phase Convective Heat Transfer
A. Introduction
B. Heat Transfer in Circular Microchannels (Micropipes)
(a) Causes for deviations from classical behaviour
(b) Experimental investigations of heat transfer in circular microchannels
(c) General recommendations
(d) Review articles
(e) Conclusions
C. Heat Transfer in Non-Circular Microchannels
D. Laminar Convective Heat Transfer
(a) Experiments and empirical correlations
(b) Effect of geometry
(c) Other influences
E. Turbulent Heat Transfer
(a) Transition
(b) Empirical correlations
F. Theoretical Analyses
G. Discussion
(a) Difficulties in testing and measurement
(b) Data reduction and correlation
(c) Interfacial effects
(d) Other considerations
Boiling And Evaporation
A. Introduction
B. Threshold to Microscale in Evaporation
C. Void Fraction Studies
D. Two-Phase Flow Studies
E. Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Studies
(a) Single channel studies
(b) Multi-channel studies
F. Evaporation Heat Transfer Models
G. Onset of Nucleate Boiling
H. Two-Phase Pressure Drops
I. Critical Heat Flux
J. Conclusions
Two-Phase Fluid Flow
A. Introduction
B. Design of Mixing Section
C. Two-Phase Flow Patterns and Their Transitions
(a) Flow patterns in micro channels for D ≥ a few mm
(b) Flow patterns in micro channels for a few 100 μm ࣚ D ࣚ a few mm
(c) Flow patterns in micro channels for D ≤ a few 100 μm
(d) Effect of surface contamination on two-phase flow patterns
D. Void Fraction
(a) Void fraction for the channel diameter range from a few hundred microns to several millimeters
(b) Void fraction for channel diameters less than a few hundred microns
E. Two-Phase Pressure Drop
(a) Homogeneous flow model
(b) Lockhart-Martinelli type correlations
Molecular Dynamics Methods in Microscale Heat Transfer
B. Molecular Dynamics Method
(a) Equation of motion and potential Function
(b) Examples of potential functions
I. Lennard-Jones potential
II. Effective pair potential for water
III. Potential for larger molecules in the liquid phase (OPLS and AMBER)
IV. Many-body potential for carbon and silicon
V. Pair potential and embedded atom method (EAM) for solid metal
(c) Integration of the Newtonian equation
(d) Boundary Condition: Spatial and Temporal Scale
(e) Initial condition and control of temperature and/or pressure
(f) Thermophysical and dynamic properties
C. Molecular Dynamics in Microscale and Nanoscale Heat Transfer
(a) Liquid-vapor interface
(b) Solid-liquid-vapor interactions
I. Lennard-Jones model system
II. Water droplet on a platinum solid surface
(c) Interaction of fluids with carbon nanotubes
I. Introduction of carbon nanotubes
II. Hydrogen absorption with single-walled carbon nanotubes
III. Water in carbon nanotubes
(d) Nucleation and phase change
I. Homogeneous nucleation
II. Heterogeneous nucleation
III. Crystallization of amorphous silicon
IV. Formation of clusters, fullerene, and carbon nanotubes
(e) Heat Conduction and heat transfer
I. Thermal boundary resistance
II. Heat conduction of carbon nanotubes
A. Introduction
B. Flow Regimes: Horizontal Channels
C. Flow Regimes: Vertical Channels
D. Pressure Drop
E. Heat Transfer Coefficient
F. Conclusions
G. Example
Micro Heat Pipes
A. Introduction to Heat Pipes
(a) Conventional heat pipes
(b) Micro heat pipes
(c) Pulsating heat pipes
B. Review of Experimental Investigations
(a) Micro heat pipes
(b) Pulsating heat pipes
C. Review of Mathematical Modeling
(a) Micro heat pipes
(b) Pulsating heat pipes
D. Application of Micro and Pulsating Heat Pipes