Detection limits for the main heteroatoms in pollutants and chemical agents have been determined in atmospheric conditions with the use of the time resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (TRELIBS) method. This method presents many advantages for detection in hazardous or corrosive gas mixtures where sampling systems are not usable. Moreover, low concentrations of fluorine, chlorine, phosphorus, sulfur and carbon can be measured with short analysis time. Results from gas analysis led us to determine the possibilities of this method to detect these atoms on targets (PVC and PTFE). We have studied parameters of plasma creation and spectrum acquisition to find the optimal working conditions of the experimental setup.