The 4th industrial revolution (ER.) will be predicated from the previous three industrial revolutions. Black's Theory of IR's proposes that industrial revolutions are spawned by new manufacturing system designs. The new manufacturing system design always brings one or more new companies to the forefront of the industrial world. Each new design employs some unique enabling technology. The new system is adopted by many other companies and slowly disseminates (diffuses) around the world.
The different MSD's are discussed and some comparative data will be given that will contrast the different designs for the manufacture of the same component.