Literature on atomization and sprays is focusing most often on spray atomization and on patternation separately. Automotive port-fuel injection needs to compromise between atomization and targeting, a term used in automotive applications for a well-defined spray pattern. Atomization and targeting are physically linked and affecting each other in most times negatively.
The technical background for the need of atomization and targeting in port fuel injection is outlined and the physical mechanisms involved are presented, supported by patternation, PDA and engine emission data. Technical constraints and the approach of Siemens Automotive to find an optimal compromise are presented.