Fouling is a major barrier for wide use of Compact Heat Exchangers (CHEs) in the process industry. Corrosion processes taking in process water are of critical importance as well. Localized corrosion, for example, is one of the most catastrophic ones, since it can render metal surfaces on the heat exchanger completely useless. Prevention of scale deposits can benefit industrial water users by eliminating (or at least by minimizing) unexpected production shut-downs and by offering substantial savings to the end user through water conservation (especially in arid areas with high water costs). This paper focuses on crystallization fouling and deposition (especially by calcium carbonate) and its mitigation by using various chemical water treatment approaches. Treatment approaches are also presented to fouling and corrosion problems with emphasis to enhanced heat exchanger tubes (internally corrugated), where this problem is commonly observed. A detailed analysis is given on the entire chemical treatment process, starting from proper selection of the treatment program, to proper application, to effective monitoring and maintenance of system performance.