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Heat Transfer Practice with Organic Media

978-1-56700-083-2 (Print)
978-1-56700-380-2 (Online)

Heat Transfer Practice with Organic Media


This new edition represents not only the most recent level of development using organic media, but also the status of design regulations which affect the design, planning, construction, and operation of plants of this type. It is the most up-to-datetreatment of this technique which permits transferring and regulating heat up to and beyond 300°C almost without increase in pressure. The guide covers in great depth heat transfer media, design of heat transfer plants, fundamentals of heat and flow, heaters, plant components, heat consumers, measuring and control techniques, installation specifications, operation of heat transfer plants, and examples of actual heat transfer plants. A voluminous Appendix gives detailed properties of organic heat carriers, such as: organic liquids having a mineral oil or a synthetic base, organic media that can operate in either a liquid or vapor state, and special oils.

664 pages, © 1997

Table of Contents:

Preface to the first German Edition
Foreword to the Second English Edition
0. Description of the most important symbols
1. Introduction
2. Heat transfer media
2.1 General
2.1.1 Water and steam
2.1.2 Salt melts
2.1.3 Liquid metals
2.2 Organic heat carriers
2.2.1 Thermal stability limits
2.2.2 Aging
2.2.3 Solubility of gases
2.2.4 Corrosion behaviour
2.2.5 Heat carriers on mineral oil base
2.2.6 Synthetic heat carriers
2.2.7 Properties and methods of investigation
2.2.8 Properties
2.2.9 Assessment
2.2.10 Physiological properties, combustibility and removal
2.2.11 Selection criteria for organic heat carriers
2.2.12 Property tables
3. Design of heat transfer plants
3.1 Symbols, flow sheets and abbreviations
3.2 Plant systems
3.2.1 Heat transfer by free convection
3.2.2 Heat transfer by natural convection
3.2.3 Heat transfer by forced convection
3.3 System design of plants with forced convection
3.3.1 Pump in flow line
3.3.2 Pump in return line
3.3.3 Dual circuit plant
3.4 System additions
3.4.1 Overflow line
3.4.2 Flue gas temperature limiter
3.4.3 Leakage control
3.4.4 Additional equipment
3.5 Plant separation system to atmosphere
3.5.1 Temperature curve in the expansion vessel
3.5.2 Direct connection to atmosphere
3.5.3 Cold medium receiver
3.5.4 Inert gas cover
3.6 Heat carrier in the collection vessel
3.6.1 Venting lines
3.7 Parallel connection of heaters
3.7.1 Pumps in flow line
3.7.2 Pumps in return line
3.7.3 Primary pump and secondary pump
3.8 Flow connecting possibilities of the heat consumer
3.8.1 Overflow control
3.8.2 Control with three-way valve
3.8.3 Subsidiary control circuit
3.8.4 Heating and cooling circuit
3.8.5 Primary and secondary circuit with mixing control of the consumer
3.9 Additions and summary of the plant systems
3.9.1 Point of installation of the three-way valve
3.9.2 Thermosyphon flow to heat consumer
3.10 Selection criteria for the plant system
3.11 Plants with liquid and vaporous heat carrier
3.12 Plant data
3.13 System performance curve of the plant
3.14 Safety equipment
4. Fundamentals of heat and flow
4.1 Flow rate of heat carrier
4.2 Pressure losses on the heat carrier side
4.2.1 Flow forms
4.2.2 Pressure loss
4.3 Fundamentals of heat
4.3.1 Heat conduction
4.3.2 Heat transfer
4.3.3 Heat radiation
4.3.4 Overall heat transfer
4.3.5 Heat transfer
5. Heaters
5.1 Electric heaters
5.1.1 Electric heaters in container design
5.1.2 Electric heaters with tube system
5.1.3 Heating elements
5.1.4 Heating element installation
5.1.5 Electric heater designs
5.2 Directly fired heaters
5.2.1 Combustion
5.2.2 Combustion temperature
5.2.3 Heat release in the flame zone
5.2.4 Maximum flame temperature
5.2.5 Flame dimensions
5.2.6 Determination of the individual heat flux densities
5.2.7 Furnace exit temperature
5.2.8 Heat uptake in the flame zone by the heat carrier
5.2.9 Designs of directly heated heaters
5.3 Heater heated by hot gases
5.4 Heaters with external furnaces
5.5 Heater performance field
5.5.1 Electrically heated heaters
5.5.2 Directly fired heaters
5.6 Example of calculation of the highest film temperature in the heater
6. Plant components
6.1 Heating
6.1.1 Liquid fuels
6.1.2 Gaseous fuels
6.1.3 Performance values of burner plants
6.2 Circulating pumps
6.2.1 Power requirements
6.2.2 Pump systems
6.2.3 Performance fields of centrifugal pumps
6.2.4 Plant performance curve
6.2.5 Influences on the pump performance curve
6.2.6 Cooperation of several centrifugal pums
6.2.7 Determination of the operational point of the plant built
6.2.8 Guaranteed values
6.2.9 Types of heat carrier circulating pumps
6.2.10 General advice on pump installation
6.3 Fittings
6.3.1 Stop valves
6.3.2 Gate valves
6.3.3 Return valves
6.3.4 Dirt catchers
6.3.5 Control fittings
6.3.6 Safety valves
6.3.7 Burst disks
6.3.8 Dimensioning of safety devices
6.3.9 Types of joint fittings
6.3.10 Dimensions and marking of fittings
6.4 Pipelines
6.4.1 Pipes
6.4.2 Pipe elongation equalization
6.4.3 Expansion joints
6.4.4 Pipe supports and attachments
6.4.5 Pipe joints
6.4.6 Insulation
6.4.7 Pipeline marking
6.5 Vessels
6.5.1 Expansion vessel
6.5.2 Collection vessel
6.5.3 Storage vessels
6.5.4 Vessel design and dimensioning
7. Heat consumers
7.1 Determination of the heat requirement
7.1.1 Continuous heating processes of media not changing their condition of state
7.1.2 Continuous heating processes of media changing their condition of state
7.1.3 Discontinuous heating processes
7.2 General design rules
7.3 Air heaters
7.4 Stirrer vessels, containers and tanks
7.5 Heat exchangers
7.6 Steam generators
7.7 Hot tap water heaters
7.8 Cylinder heating
7.9 Press heating
7.10 Heat consumers by fields of application
8. Measuring, control and circuit technique
8.1 Measuring technique
8.1.1 Temperature measurement
8.1.2 Pressure measurement
8.1.3 Level measurement
8.1.4 Flow measurement
8.2 Control technique
8.2.1 General
8.2.2 Control with two-point controller and burner adjustment
8.2.3 Consumer control
8.3 Limitation technique
8.4 Circuit technique
8.4.1 Flow of current diagram
8.4.2 Network connection
8.4.3 Contactor controls
8.4.4 Motor protection
8.4.5 Motor protection switches
8.4.6 Protective disconnection of main and control circuit
8.4.7 Planning bases for three-phase motors
8.4.8 Insulated conductors
8.4.9 Description of a current flow diagram
8.4.10 Automatic oil firing switch
8.4.11 Light sensor
9. Installation specifications
9.1 Installation of the heaters
9.2 Heater room specifications
9.2.1 Heater room arrangement
9.2.2 Heater room design
9.2.3 Heater room design example
9.3 Stacks
9.3.1 Emission and immission
9.3.2 Determination of the cross-section
9.3.3 Planning aids
10. Operation of heat transfer plants
10.1 Acceptance test
10.2 Cleaning
10.3 Tightness test
10.4 Filling of the plant with heat carrier and pressure test
10.5 Functioning test
10.6 Commissioning
10.7 Record of measurements
10.8 Shutting-down
10.9 Maintenance
10.9.1 Heat carrier
10.9.2 Heater
10.9.3 Safety apparatus
10.9.4 Tightness of plant
10.9.5 Plant components
10.10 Repairs
11. Laws, decrees, regulations, standards and specifications
11.1 Equipment Safety Statute
11.2 Ordinance Concerning Pressure
11.3 Accident Prevention Regulation (VBG 64)
11.4 Technical rules
11.4.1 The DIN 4754 Standard
11.4.2 VDI Specification 3033
11.4.3 Technical rules for pressure vessels (pressure vessel data sheets)
11.5 Additional statutes and ordinances
11.5.1 Statute on Water Conservation (WHG) (Wasserhaushaltsgesetz)
11.5.2 Tests in accordance with the equipment safety statute (GSiG)
12. Examples of actual heat transfer plants
12.1 Refinery heating
12.2 Galvanizing tank heating
12.3 Heating of a blood meal production
12.4 Heat transfer plants in the building and concrete industry
12.4.1 Heating fundamentals
12.4.2 Practical execution of the heating
12.5 Heat transfer plants in marine operation
12.5.1 Fundamentals
12.5.2 Heating of a container ship
12.6 Heat transfer plants for heating and cooling processes
12.6.1 General
12.6.2 Heating and cooling of a stirrer
12.7 Heating of coating machines
12.8 Heating of driers in coating plants
12.9 Heating of a fibre board works with wood waste
12.10 Heat transfer plants in the textile industry
12.11 Heating system for drying during impregnation and coating of paper
12.12 Heat recovery in thermal burning-out by organic heat carrier media
13. Units and conversion tables
14. References
14.1 References to the sections in the book
14.2 References to heat transfer media technology
15. Comparison of German and foreign rules and standards
15.1 Mineral oil standards
15.2 Identification letters for the measuring, regulating and control technique
15.3 Pipeline components and materials
15.4 Electrotechnique
16. Subject index
Appendix: Properties of Organic Heat Carriers