An experimental method and a theoretical model to study the ignition of the pulverized coal-air flow in a tube are introduced. The situation of the tube ignition is similar to the practical engineering process, so the method has some advantages over the other methods. Several typical coals are used in our experiments. The coal concentration, the air flow velocity, the tube wall temperature and the heat flux of the tube wall surface are controlled and adjusted in the experiments. The experimental results are in full agreement with the calculated results of the model.