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Quality, Sustainability and Indicators of Energy Systems

ISBN Print:

Quality, Sustainability and Indicators of Energy Systems

Naim Hamdia Afgan
Instituto Superior Tecnico Department of Mechanical Engineering Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon Portugal

Maria da Graca Carvalho
Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal


This book is a collection of the materials authors have published in the last several years and comprises two parts. The first parts, including Chapters 1 through 4, are devoted to the new method for energy system evaluation based on the multicriteria assessment. The second part comprises application of multicriteria method on different energy systems. Attention is focused on clean air technologies, new and renewable energy systems, hydrogen systems, biomass systems, solar systems and multicriteria evaluation water efficiency, water desalination systems and evaluation of heat sink design for computer systems.

251 pages ©2007

Table of Contents:

Chapter 1
1 Introduction
1.1 Globalization
1.2 Democratization
1.3 Decentralization
1.4 Sustainability Science
1.4.1 Systems and Complexity
1.4.2 Core Questions
1.4.3 Research Strategies
1.4.4 Institutions and Infrastructure
1.5 Sustainability Concept Definition
1.5.1 Strong versus Weak Sustainability
1.5.2 Weak Sustainability
1.5.3 Strong Sustainability
Chapter 2
2 Sustainability D efinitions
2.1 Agenda 21
Chapter 3
3 Multicriteria Decision Making Methods
3.1 Multicriteria decision making
3.2 Elimination and Choice Translating Reality (ELECTRE)
3.3 Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE)
3.4 Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)
3.5 Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT)
Chapter 4
4 Sustainability Assessments
4.1 What is “Fuzzy Sets Synthesis Technique”?
4.2 How to Choose a Synthesizing Function and Weight Coefficients
4.3 How Does DSSS “ASPID — 3W” Work
4.4 Pyramidal Hierarchies of Indices
4.5 Pyramidal Hierarchies of Indices with Disjoint Sets of Arguments
4.6 Indices Hierarchies with Additional Synthesizing Functions
4.7 Randomization of Uncertain Weight Coefficients
Chapter 5
5 Sustainability Modeling of Energy Systems
5.1 Definitions of Quality
5.1.1 Resource Quality
5.2 Indicators
5.2.1 Hierarchical Concept of Indicators
5.2.2 Energy System Indicators
5.2.3 Indicators Hierarchies with Additive Synthesizing Functions
5.2.4 Definition of Energy System Indicators
5.3 Application
Chapter 6
6 Potential Technology Development
6.1 Sustainable Energy Development
6.1.1 Energy Efficiency
6.1.2 Development of Intelligent Energy Systems
6.2 New and Renewable Energy Sources (NRES)
6.2.1 Solar Energy System
6.2.2 Geothermal Energy Resources
6.2.3 Biomass Energy Resources
6.2.4 Wind Energy Resources
6.2.5 Hydro Energy Resources
6.3 Energy Polygeneration
6.4 Hydrogen Technology
6.4.1 Fuel Cell Technology
Chapter 7
7 Clean Air Technologies
7.1 Sustainability Assessment
7.1.1 Option Selection
7.1.2 Defining Indicators
7.2 Single-Criteria Assessment
7.2.1 Investment Cost Comparison
7.2.2 Comparing Fuel Costs
7.2.3 Comparing Energy Costs
7.2.4 CO2 Emission Comparison
7.2.5 NOx Health Effect Comparison
7.3 Multicriteria Assessment
7.4 Selection of Cases
7.5 Discussion of Multicriteria Evaluation
Chapter 8
8 New and Renewable Energy Power Plants
8.1 Multicriteria Evaluation
8.2 NRES Power Plant Selection
8.2.1 Pulverized Coal Fired Power Plant
8.2.2 Solar-Thermal Power Plant
8.2.3 Geothermal Power Plant
8.2.4 Biomass Power Plant
8.2.5 Nuclear Power Plant
8.2.6 PV Solar Power Plant
8.2.7 Wind Power Plant
8.2.8 Ocean Power Plant
8.2.9 Hydro Power Plant
8.2.10 Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC)
8.3 Multicriteria Sustainability Assessment
8.3.1 Indicator Definition
8.4 Selection of Cases
8.4.1 Priority Given to One Indicator with Others Being the Same
8.4.2 Priority of the Criteria Selected by Number Orders
8.5 Discussion
Chapter 9
9 Water Desalination Systems
9.1 Desalting Plants in the Gulf Area: A New Outlook
9.1.1 The MSF Desalting System Energy Consumption
9.2 Desalination Plant Sustainability Indicators
9.3 Desalination Plant Option Selection
9.3.1 Option 1 — Single-Purpose MSF Desalination Plants
9.3.2 Option 2 — Dual-Purpose Power-MSF Desalination Plants
9.3.3 Option 3 — Reverse Osmosis Desalting Plants with Local Electric Energy Production
9.3.4 Option 4 — Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plant with PV Electric Energy Production
9.4 Evaluation of the Sustainability Indicators
9.4.1 Sustainability Assessment Procedure
9.5 Discussion of the General Index of Sustainability
Chapter 10
10 Sustainability Assessment of an Aluminum Heat Sink Design
10.1 Analytical Model for Thermal Characterization of Plate Fin Heat Sinks
10.2 Assessing Heat Sink Designs
10.3 Multicriteria Sustainability Assessment
10.4 Multicriteria Evaluation
Chapter 11
11 Water Services Efficiency
11.1 Water Scarcity
11.2 Water Services' Efficiency Determination
11.2.1 Water Quality Indicators
11.2.2 Resource Indicators
11.2.3 Environmental Indicators
11.2.4 Social Indicators
11.2.5 Economic Indicators
11.3 Definition of Water Quality
11.4 The Water Services' Efficiency Estimation by a Hierarchy of Indices Under “Total Uncertainty”
11.5. The Water Services' Efficiency Estimation by a Hierarchy of Indices Hierarchy of Indices with the use of a NNN Information about Weight Coefficients
Chapter 12
12 Hydrogen Energy Systems
12.1 Assessing Sustainability
12.2 Selecting Options and Indicators for Hydrogen Energy Systems
12.2.1 Selecting Options
12.3 Selecting Indicators
12.3.1 Performance Indicators (PI)
12.3.2 Market Indicators (MI)
12.3.3 Environment Indicators
12.3.4 Social Indicators
12.4 Single-Criteria Analysis
12.4.1 Performance Indicator (PI)
12.4.2 Market Indicators
12.4.3 Environment Indicators (EI)
12.4.4 Social Indicators (SI)
12.5 Indicators Agglomeration
12.5.1 Performance Agglomerated Indicators (PAI)
12.5.2 Market Aggregated Indicators (MAI)
12.5.3 Environment Agglomerated Indicators (EAI)
12.5.4 Social Agglomerated Indicators (SAI)
12.6 Multicriteria Sustainability Assessment
12.6.1 Definition of the Sustainability Index
12.6.2 Evaluating the Sustainability Index (SI)
Chapter 13
13 Biomass Energy Systems
13.1 Selecting Options
13.1.1 Direct Biomass-Fired Power Plant Using Biomass Residuals
13.1.2 Pulverized Coal-Fired Steam Cycle Power Plant
13.1.3 Natural Gas Combined-Cycle Power Plant
13.1.4 Coal/Biomass Cofiring Power Plant
13.1.5 Biomass-Fired Integrated Gasification with a Combined Cycle System
13.1.6 Wind Energy System
13.2 Selecting Indicators
13.2.1 Economic Indicators (EcI)
13.2.2 Environment Indicators
13.2.3 Technological Indicators
13.2.4 Social Indicators
13.3 Results and Discussion
Chapter 14
14 Solar Energy Systems
14.1 Selecting Power Plants
14.1.1 Solar Thermal Power Plants
14.1.2 PV Solar Power Plants
14.1.3 Wind Power Plants
14.1.4 Gas Turbine Power Plants
14.1.5 Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants (PCPPs)
14.2 Selecting Criteria and Defining Indicators
14.2.1 Economic Indicators
14.2.2 Environment Indicators
14.2.3 Social Indicators
14.3 Multicriteria Sustainability Assessment
14.3.1 Indicator Normalization
14.3.2 General Index of Sustainability
14.3.3 Probability of Dominancy
14.4 Solar Energy System Evaluation
14.4.1 Agglomerated Indicators
14.4.2 Sustainability Index Rating