ALL ARTICLES MUST INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING:
Author Information: Senior author's full name, affiliation, and e-mail address. Corresponding author’s complete mailing address and e-mail address. Co-authors’ affiliations and e-mail addresses.
Abstract: All articles must have an abstract not to exceed 250 words. Avoid using abbreviations, diagrams, and references in the abstract.
Key Words: All articles should have a list of key (indexing) terms. Three to ten key words or terms not in the title will assist indexers in cross-indexing your article.
Body: Group all tables, figures, figure captions, and footnotes at the end of the article, following the references. The body should be divided into several sections identified by headings and subheadings according to the following scheme:
- PRINCIPAL HEADING
- First Subheading
- Second Subheading
Italic or boldface type should be clearly indicated and Greek or unusual characters should be written plainly or explained by annotations. Simple fractional expressions should be written with a slant line rather than stacked, so that only a single line of type is required in the text.
- Third Subheading
Formulas and Equations:Displayed equations should be incorporated in the text and should be numbered using Arabic numerals (in parentheses) in sequence. In the text, they should be referred to as "Eq. (1)," etc. At the beginning of a sentence, the word Equation(s) should be written out. Equations should not be provided as pictures; use programs such as MathType, Microsoft Equation, etc. All symbols should be identified in the text at first mention. Symbols that denote mathematical variables should be in italics. A clear distinction should be made between the characters "I," "l" (el) and "1" (one); "o," "O," and "0" (zero); "w" and "ω" (omega); "v" and "ν" (nu), etc. Please observe correct spacing: 25°C (not 25° C or 25 °C). For numerical values of measurable quantities, show no more digits than are significant. The use of powers of ten is recommended, e.g., 1.23 x 105 instead of 123,000. Use decimal points, not commas. Empirical and structural formulas and mathematical and chemical equations should be arranged to fill the width of a single or double column. Subscripts and superscripts (i.e., exponents), such as +, -, =, <, or >, (ex: 102 + 114 or 125 – 47) should be spaced, but the components of mathematical products should not be spaced.
Organic Structural Formulas: Organic structural formulas should be submitted as copy suitable for direct photographic reproduction. Do not use structures when a simple formula will suffice. Do not use multiple lines unnecessarily. In order to avoid errors, carefully arrange and execute all formula matter, paying special attention to correctness of symbols; location of subscripts, superscripts and electric charges; and the placing and close join-up of single and multiple bond lines. Originals should be grouped at the end of the manuscript with other figures.
Units and Quantities: Units follow the Systeme International d’Unites (SI https://www.physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/units.html). Symbols for physical quantities should be those recommended by IUPAC, IUPAP or ASTM.
Figures: Figures should not exceed the size of the journal pages (size requirements can be obtained by emailing journals). Use only Arial and Symbol fonts for text within figures. Acceptable formats for figures are TIFF, JPEG, EPS, or similar program files saved from the original application at 300-700 dpi. Because of the loss of resolution, we do not accept figures embedded in word or PDF. The preferred format is TIFF; however, maintaining a clear quality of the figures is most important. Do not use gray rules, only black. If the text is printed over gray backgrounds for any reason, the gray must be at least 50% lighter than the text. If possible, avoid grayscales entirely. For best results, figures must be submitted at the highest possible quality. Figure captions should be typed at the end of the article, after the references. The author can submit color figures that will appear in color online, but will print in black and white. Color reproduction of figures is possible at the author’s expense; rates will be provided upon request. If you are providing color figures and do not want to pay to print the figures in color, please do not refer to the colors when describing the figure in the text or figure caption. Please be sure to call out all figures in the text in numerical order.
Tables: Tables cannot be embedded in the text or provided as a picture. Provide tables at the end of the article and be sure to call out the tables in numerical order in the text. A short descriptive title should appear above each table with a clear legend and any footnotes suitably identified below the table. All units must be included.
Footnotes: Footnotes should be identified in the text with symbols such as * † ‡ § || ¶, and cited consecutively within the paper. If you have many footnotes you can double the suggested symbols.
Please Carefully Follow the Reference Formatting: Incorrectly formatted reference lists or reference callouts in the text will be returned to the author to correct before processing for publication.
Reference Format: References follow Vancouver Style, which is available in all reference management software. Detailed instructions to set up Vancouver Style references can be found on the NLM site at https://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html. Cite references in the text in numerical order using superscript numerals, placed close-up (no space) after punctuation. References to classified documents and reports or to unpublished material not generally available to the scientific public should not be used. Journal abbreviations should be consistent with Index Medicus (check journal abbreviations at http://www2.bg.am.poznan.pl/czasopisma/medicus.php?lang=eng).
NOTE: Previously the first six authors were followed by et al. However, NLM now lists all authors.
Format references exactly as follows:
Agarwal S, Rao A. Modulation of chromatin structure regulates cytokine gene expression during T-cell differentiation. Immunity. 1998 Dec 25;9(6):765-75.
As an option, if a journal carries continuous pagination throughout a volume (as many medical journals do) the month and issue number may be omitted.
Agarwal S, Rao A. Modulation of chromatin structure regulates cytokine gene expression during T-cell differentiation. Immunity. 1998;9:765-775.
Optional addition of a database's unique identifier for the citation:
Agarwal S, Rao A. Modulation of chromatin structure regulates cytokine gene expression during T-cell differentiation. Immunity. 1998 Dec 25;9(6):765-775. Cited in PubMed; PMID 12000309.
Organization as author
Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679-86.
Both personal authors and an organization as author
Vallancien G, Emberton M, Harving N, van Moorselaar RJ; Alf-One Study Group. European men suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms. J Urol. 2003;169(6):2257-61.
No author given
21st century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ. 2002;325(7357):184.
Article not in English
Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. Sykdomsangst blant medisinog jusstudenter. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002;122(8):785-7.
Volume with supplement
Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache. 2002;42 Suppl 2:S93-9.
Issue with supplement
Glauser TA. Integrating clinical trial data into clinical practice. Neurology. 2002;58(12 Suppl 7):S6-12.
Volume with part
Abend SM, Kulish N. The psychoanalytic method from an epistemological viewpoint. Int J Psychoanal. 2002;83(Pt 2):491-5.
Issue with part
Ahrar K, Madoff DC, Gupta S, Wallace MJ, Price RE, Wright KC. Development of a large animal model for lung tumors. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2002;13(9 Pt 1):923-8.
Issue with no volume
Banit DM, Kaufer H, Hartford JM. Intraoperative frozen section analysis in revision total joint arthroplasty. Clin Orthop. 2002;(401):230-8.
No volume or issue
Outreach: bringing HIV-positive individuals into care. HRSA Careaction. 2002 Jun:1-6.
Books and Other Monographs
Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.
Editor(s), compiler(s) as author
Gilstrap LC 3rd, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.
Author(s) and editor(s)
Breedlove GK, Schorfheide AM. Adolescent pregnancy. 2nd ed. Wieczorek RR, editor. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Education Services; 2001.
Organization(s) as author
Royal Adelaide Hospital; University of Adelaide, Department of Clinical Nursing. Compendium of nursing research and practice development, 1999-2000. Adelaide (Australia): Adelaide University; 2001.
Chapter in a book
Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.
Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002.
Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza's computational effort statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Genetic programming. EuroGP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming; 2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer; 2002. p. 182-91.
Issued by funding/sponsoring agency
Yen GG (Oklahoma State University, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Stillwater, OK). Health monitoring on vibration signatures. Final report. Arlington (VA): Air Force Office of Scientific Research (US), Air Force Research Laboratory; 2002 Feb. Report No.: AFRLSRBLTR020123. Contract No.: F496209810049.
Issued by performing agency
Russell ML, Goth-Goldstein R, Apte MG, Fisk WJ. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne Rhinovirus. Berkeley (CA): Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy Technologies Division; 2002 Jan. Report No.: LBNL49574. Contract No.: DEAC0376SF00098. Sponsored by the Department of Energy.
Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Michigan University; 2002.
Pagedas AC, inventor; Ancel Surgical R&D Inc., assignee. Flexible endoscopic grasping and cutting device and positioning tool assembly. United States patent US 20020103498. 2002 Aug 1.
Other Published Material
Chason KW, Sallustio S. Hospital preparedness for bioterrorism [videocassette]. Secaucus (NJ): Network for Continuing Medical Education; 2002.
Veterans Hearing Loss Compensation Act of 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-9, 115 Stat. 11 (May 24, 2001).
Healthy Children Learn Act, S. 1012, 107th Cong., 1st Sess. (2001).
Code of Federal Regulations
Cardiopulmonary Bypass Intracardiac Suction Control, 21 C.F.R. Sect. 870.4430 (2002).
Arsenic in Drinking Water: An Update on the Science, Benefits and Cost: Hearing Before the Subcomm. on Environment, Technology and Standards of the House Comm. on Science, 107th Cong., 1st Sess. (Oct. 4, 2001).
Pratt B, Flick P, Vynne C, cartographers. Biodiversity hotspots [map]. Washington: Conservation International; 2000.
In press (Note: NLM prefers "forthcoming" because not all items will be printed.)
Tian D, Araki H, Stahl E, Bergelson J, Kreitman M. Signature of balancing selection in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. In press 2002.
Anderson SC, Poulsen KB. Anderson's electronic atlas of hematology [CD-ROM]. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002.
Journal article on the internet
Monograph on the internet
Foley KM, Gelband H, editors. Improving palliative care for cancer [monograph on the Internet]. Washington: National Academy Press; 2001 [cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/books/0309074029/html/
Cancer-Pain.org [homepage on the Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.cancer-pain.org/
Database on the internet
Who's Certified [database on the Internet]. Evanston (IL): The American Board of Medical Specialists. c2000 - [cited 2001 Mar 8]. Available from: http://www.abms.org/newsearch.asp