Two types of electrical arcs with free stabilized argon column and compressed column have been investigated. The powers of the anode and the cathode have been determined experimentally and calculated approximately. As a result these studies have found essential convective component in the compressed column arc compared with the free stabilized column. The analytical expressions for temperature distribution in metal have been proposed for welding and cutting.
Voltages in the arc column, near the cathodic and anodic regions as well have been determined by the calculation and experimental methods. Numerical calculations performed for argon arcs have shown good agreement with measurements.
As a result of the calculations and experiments done the energy balance of the arcs has been composed. In accordance with the energy balance the scale of voltages has been obtained. The thermal problem in metal has been solved and the optimal conditions of welding and cutting processes and temperature fields in metal have been obtained.