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Process Heat Transfer

978-1-56700-149-5 (Imprimer)
978-1-56700-349-9 (En ligne)

Process Heat Transfer

Geoffrey F. Hewitt
Department of Chemical Engineering & Chemical Technology Imperial College of Science, Technology & Medicine Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2B Y, England

G. L. Shires
Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, United Kingdom

T. Reg Bott
School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom


Process Heat Transfer presents comprehensive coverage of both classical and new topics on the subject. Classical aspects discussed include shell-and-tube heat exchangers, double pipe exchangers, reboilers, and condensers. New topics covered include process integration, heat exchanger selection, heat transfer associated with thermodynamic cycles, and ohmic heating. The book includes both worked examples and problems at the end of each chapter. Extensive sections on the fundamental principles of heat transfer and fluid flow, in addition to a wealth of material on applied techniques and problems, make Process Heat Transfer an invaluable text/reference for students and professionals in mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, and applied heat transfer. "In summary, the essential usefulness of this book is as a 'one-stop' source of information on the basic theory and mechanism of heat transfer, typical correlations and methods for use in thermal design, and all types of modern process heat transfer equipment...the book represents very good value and can certainly be recommended as a textbook for general courses on process heat will also be very useful as a general source book for the practicing engineer who needs access to a wide range of information on process heat transfer in a single volume...." - From a review in Heat Transfer Engineering

1042 pages, © 1994

Table des matières:

1. Introduction
1.1 Aim of this Book
1.2 Process Industries
1.3 Applications of Heat Transfer in the Process Industries
1.3.1 Chemical Reactions
1.3.2 Biological Reactions
1.3.3 Physical Changes
1.3.4 Power Generation
1.3.5 Air Conditioning and Space Heating
1.3.6 Waste Heat Recovery
1.4 Heat Exchangers
1.4.1 Heat Exchanger/Process Configurations
1.4.2 Classification of Heat Exchangers
1.4.3 Heat Exchanger Family Tree
1.5 Structure of this Book
2. Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Modes of Heat Transfer
2.3 Heat Conduction
2.3.1 Introduction
2.3.2 Thermal Conductivity in Solids, Liquids, and Gases
2.3.3 General Equation of Heat Conduction
2.3.4 Steady-State Heat Conduction
2.3.5 Heat Conduction in Fins
2.3.6 Two-Dimensional Steady-State Heat Conduction
2.3.7 Conduction with Internal Heat Generation
2.3.8 Transient Heat Conduction
2.4 Convective Heat Transfer
2.4.1 Introduction
2.4.2 Fluid Motion and Convective Heat Transfer
2.4.3 Nondimensional Parameters
2.4.4 Heat Transfer To, or From, a Body in a Flowing Stream
2.4.5 Heat Transfer in Cross-Flow Heat Exchangers
2.4.6 Internal Flow: Friction Factor and Pressure Drop
2.4.7 Internal Flow: Heat Transfer
2.4.8 Natural Convection
2.4.9 Heat Transfer Coefficients for Natural Convection
2.5 Thermal Radiation
2.5.1 Introduction
2.5.2 Blackbody Radiation
2.5.3 Radiation Intensity and Its Relationship to Emissive Power
2.5.4 Real Surfaces: Radiation
2.5.5 Real Surfaces: Irradiation
2.5.6 Kirchhoffs Law
2.5.7 Radiation between Surfaces: View Factor
2.5.8 Radiation between Reflecting Surfaces
2.5.9 Combination of Radiation and Natural Convection
2.5.10 Absorption and Emission by Gases
3. Basic Theory of Heat Exchangers
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
3.3 Temperature Profiles in Heat Exchangers and the General Method for Heat Exchanger Area Calculation
3.4 Special Solutions for Constant Heat Transfer Coefficient and Heat Capacities
3.4.1 Pure Counterflow Heat Exchanger
3.4.2 Pure Cocurrent Flow
3.4.3 Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger with Two Tube-Side Passes
3.4.4 Multiple Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
3.4.5 Cross-Flow Heat Exchangers
3.5 Maximum Heat Transfer Rate and Heat Exchanger Effectiveness
3.6 Number of Transfer Units
3.7 Alternative Representations of Heat Exchanger Performance
3.8 Utilization of F-0-NTU-P Charts
4. Selection of Heat Exchangers
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Types of Heat Exchangers
4.2.1 Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
4.2.2 Double-Pipe Heat Exchangers
4.2.3 Gasketed Plate Heat Exchangers
4.2.4 Spiral Heat Exchangers
4.2.5 Lamella Heat Exchangers
4.2.6 Welded Plate Exchangers
4.2.7 Special Designs for Hot Gas-to-Liquid Duties
4.2.8 Special Designs for Gas-to-Gas Recuperative Duties
4.2.9 Heat-Pipe Heat Exchangers
4.2.10 Cyclic Regenerators
4.2.11 Rotary Regenerators
4.2.12 Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
4.2.13 Compact Heat Exchangers
4.2.14 Scraped Surface Heat Exchangers
4.3 Initial Selection
4.4 Selection between Feasible Types
4.5 Heat Transfer Fluids
5. Double-Pipe Heat Exchangers
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Mechanical Design
5.2.1 Double-Pipe Straight Tube Heat Exchangers
5.2.2 Double-Pipe U-Tube Heat Exchangers
5.2.3 Multitube Units
5.2.4 Fins
5.3 Advantages of Double-Pipe Heat Exchangers
5.3.1 Simplicity of Construction
5.3.2 Ease of Access for Maintenance
5.3.3 Countercurrent Flow
5.3.4 Feasibility of Finned Tubes
5.3.5 High-Pressure Applications
5.4 Thermal Performance Assessment
5.4.1 Introduction
5.4.2 Simple Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger
5.4.3 Parallel/Series Arrangements of Double-Pipe Heat Exchangers
5.4.4 Effect of Longitudinal Fins
5.4.5 Multitube Units
6. Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
6.1 Introduction: The Design Process
6.2 Definitions and Basic Mechanical Features
6.2.1 Shell Type
6.2.2 Tube Bundle
6.2.3 Tube Diameter
6.2.4 Tube Length
6.2.5 Tube Layout and Pitch
6.2.6 Baffle Design
6.3 Heat Transfer and Pressure Loss Calculations
6.3.1 Kern Method
6.3.2 Bell-Delaware Method
6.3.3 Flow Stream-Analysis Method
6.4 Rating and Design
7. Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Structural Characteristics
7.2.1 Basic Features and Applications
7.2.2 Extended Surface Geometries
7.3 Heat Transfer and Frictional Pressure Drop
7.3.1 Laminar Flow
7.3.2 General Heat Transfer and Frictional Pressure Drop Relationships
7.3.3 Interrupted Plate-Fin Systems
7.3.4 Comparison of Surface Geometries in Terms of Thermal/Hydraulic Performance
7.4 Procedure for Performance Calculations
7.4.1 Geometrical Parameters
7.4.2 Calculation of Heat Transfer in Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers
7.4.3 Calculation of Pressure Drop in Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers
7.4.4 Summary of Procedure for Calculating Performance
8. Plate-and-Frame Heat Exchangers
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Applications of the Plate-and-Frame Heat Exchanger
8.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Plate Heat Exchangers
8.3.1 Flexibility
8.3.2 Compactness
8.3.3 Low Fabrication Costs
8.3.4 Ease of Cleaning
8.3.5 Temperature Control
8.4 Plate Corrugations
8.4.1 Forms of Corrugation
8.4.2 Plate Heat Transfer
8.4.3 Plate Pressure Drop
8.4.4 Pressure Loss at Inlet and Outlet
8.5 Plate-and-Frame Heat Exchanger Configurations
8.6 Thermal Performance
8.6.1 Methods of Calculation
8.6.2 Single-Pass Plate Heat Exchanger in Countercurrent Flow
8.6.3 Two-Pass/Two-Pass Plate Heat Exchanger in Countercurrent Flow
8.6.4 Two-Pass/One-Pass Plate Heat Exchanger
8.6.5 Designing a Plate Heat Exchanger for a Specific Duty
9. Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Air Cooling
9.2.1 Advantages
9.2.2 Disadvantages
9.3 Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger Construction
9.3.1 Arrangement of Tube Bundles and Provision of Air Flow
9.3.2 Bundle Construction and Flow Configuration
9.3.3 Finned Tube Construction
9.4 Thermal Performance of Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
9.4.1 Thermal Performance Calculations
9.4.2 Calculation of ΔTM
9.4.3 Effects of Tube Configuration on Performance
10. Two-Phase Flow
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Two-Phase Flow Patterns
10.2.1 Vertical Round Tubes
10.2.2 Flow Patterns in Horizontal Tubes
10.2.3 Flow Patterns in Inclined Tubes
10.2.4 Flow Patterns in Cross-Flow and in Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
10.3 Basic Equations
10.3.1 Definitions
10.3.2 Balance Equations for Homogeneous Flow
10.3.3 Balance Equations for the Separated-Flow Model
10.4 Pressure Drop Calculations Based on the Homogeneous Model
10.4.1 Frictional Pressure Drop Calculation for In-Tube Flow
10.4.2 Use of the Homogeneous Model for the Calculation of Pressure Differences across Changes of Cross Section and around Bends
10.5 Frictional Pressure Drop Calculation Method Based on the Separated-Flow Model
10.5.1 Definitions
10.5.2 In-Tube Separated-Flow Friction Pressure Drop Correlations
10.5.3 Use of the Separated-Flow Model for the Calculation of Pressure Difference across Changes of Cross Section and around Bends
10.5.4 Pressure Drop Correlation for Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
10.6 Void Fraction Calculation
10.7 Calculation of Critical Mass Flow Rate
10.8 Flooding
11. Boiling Heat Transfer
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium and Vapor Formation
11.3 Pool Boiling
11.4 Forced Convective Boiling
11.5 Cross-Flow Boiling
11.6 Multicomponent Boiling
11.6.1 Multicomponent Equilibrium
11.6.2 Pool Boiling
11.6.3 Forced Convective Boiling
11.7 Correlations for Boiling Coefficient
11.7.1 Nucleate Boiling
11.7.2 Coefficients in Forced Convection
11.7.3 Combined Nucleate Boiling and Forced Convection
11.7.4 Postdryout Heat Transfer
11.8 Critical Heat Flux
11.8.1 Definition
11.8.2 Mechanism in Pool Boiling
11.8.3 Mechanisms in Forced Convective Boiling
11.8.4 Correlations for Critical Heat Flux in Pool Boiling
11.8.5 Correlations for Forced Convective Critical Heat Flux in Vertical Channels.
11.8.6 Critical Heat Flux in Horizontal Channels
12. Heat Exchangers with Vapor Generation
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Classification of Heat Exchangers with Vapor Generation
12.2.1 Classification According to Function
12.2.2 Classification According to Mode of Heat Transfer
12.2.3 Source of Heat
12.2.4 Geometry
12.2.5 Circulation
12.3 Temperature Profiles in Heat Exchangers with Vapor Generation
12.4 Basic Design Procedure
12.5 Limiting Factors to be Considered in Design
12.5.1 Dryout and Critical Heat Flux
12.5.2 Counterflow Flooding
12.5.3 Maldistribution
12.5.4 Instability in Heat Exchangers with Vapor Generation
13. Steam Generators
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Fossil Fuel Fired Boilers
13.3 Waste Heat Boilers
13.3.1 Flue Gas Heated Boilers
13.3.2 Process Gas Heated Boilers
14. Reboilers
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Types of Reboilers
14.2.1 Internal Reboiler
14.2.2 Kettle Reboiler
14.2.3 Vertical Thermosyphon Reboiler
14.2.4 Horizontal Thermosyphon Reboiler
14.2.5 Selection of Type
14.3 Detailed Experimental Studies
14.3.1 Kettle Reboilers
14.3.2 Vertical Thermosyphon Reboilers
14.4 Problems in Design
14.4.1 Kettle and Internal Reboilers
14.4.2 Vertical Thermosyphon Reboilers
14.4.3 Horizontal Thermosyphon Reboilers
14.4.4 Pumped Reboilers
14.5 A Design Strategy
14.5.1 Simulation Calculation
14.5.2 Design Calculation
14.6 Design Methods
14.6.1 Void Fraction in Cross-Flow
14.6.2 Boiling in Cross-Flow
14.6.3 Critical Heat Flux in Cross-Flow
14.6.4 Instability
14.6.5 Use of the Homogeneous Model of Two-Phase Flow
14.7 Conclusions
15. Evaporators
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Classification of Evaporators
15.3 Evaporation from Liquid Films
15.3.1 Film Evaporators
15.3.2 Falling Film Evaporators
15.3.3 Heat Transfer Equations for Falling Film Evaporators
15.3.4 Climbing Film Evaporators
15.4 Evaporation of Liquid with Nucleate Boiling at the Heated Surface
15.4.1 Evaporators Employing Boiling inside Tubes and Passages
15.4.2 Evaporators Employing Boiling outside Tubes and Passages
15.5 Flash Evaporation
15.6 Direct Contact Evaporation
15.7 Selection of Type of Evaporator
15.8 Multiple Effect Evporation
15.8.1 Multiple Effect Evaporation: Forward Feed
15.8.2 Multiple Effect Evaporation: Backward Feed
15.8.3 Multiple Effect Evaporation: Parallel Feed
16. Condensation
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Modes of Condensation
16.3 Filmwise Condensation on Vertical Surfaces
16.3.1 Gravity-Controlled Condensation
16.3.2 Shear-Controlled Condensation
16.3.3 Condensation Under Combined Gravity and Shear Control
16.4 Horizontal Tube Systems
16.4.1 Condensation outside Tubes and Tube Banks
16.4.2 Condensation on the inside of Horizontal Tubes
16.5 Condensation in Multicomponent Systems
16.5.1 Equivalent Laminar Film Model and the Effect of Condensation Rate on Interfacial Shear Stress
16.5.2 Effect of Mass Flux on Heat Transfer between Gas Phase and Interface
16.5.3 Mass Transfer in Binary Mixtures
16.5.4 Dimensionless Relationships in Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer
16.5.5 Colburn-Hougen and Colburn-Drew Methods for Calculation of Local Heat Flux in Condensation and Application in Condenser Design
16.5.6 Multicomponent Vapor Condensation
17. Heat Exchangers with Vapor Condensation
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Selection of Process Condensers
17.3 Survey of Condenser Type
17.3.1 Shell-and-Tube Condensers for Process Application
17.3.2 Air-Cooled Condensers
17.3.3 Gasketed Plate Exchangers for Condensation
17.3.4 Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers
17.3.5 Direct Contact Heat Transfer
18. Shell-and-Tube Condensers
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Heat Transfer Coefficients
18.2.1 Tube Side
18.2.2 Shell Side
18.3 Mean Temperature Difference and Area Calculation
18.3.1 Isothermal Condensation
18.3.2 Condensation with Desuperheating and Subcooling
18.3.3 Multicomponent Mixtures
18.4 Pressure Drop
18.4.1 Tube-Side Pressure Drop
18.4.2 Shell-Side Pressure Drop
18.4.3 Nozzle Pressure Drop
18.5 Flooding in Reflux Condensers
19. Air-Cooled Condensers
19.1 Introduction
19.1.1 Application of Air-Cooled Condensers
19.2 Mounting Arrangements for Air-Cooled Condensation
19.2.1 Ground-Mounted Unit
19.2.2 Column-Mounted Unit
19.3 Flow Arrangements for Air-Cooled Condensation
19.3.1 Downflow (Inclined Tube) Condensers
19.3.2 Reflux (Inclined Tube) Condensers
19.3.3 Combined Downflow and Reflux Condensers
19.3.4 Horizontal Tube Condensers
19.3.5 Vertical Tube Condensers
19.4 Design of Air-Cooled Condensers
19.5 Maldistribution Effects
19.5.1 Air Flow Maldistribution
19.6 Noise Generation
20. Condensation in Plate-and-Frame Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Plate-and-Frame Heat Exchangers for Condensing Duties
20.2.1 Pressure Drop Calculations
20.2.2 Heat Transfer Calculations
20.3 Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers for Condensing Duties
21. Direct Contact Heat Transfer
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Classification of Direct Contact Heat Transfer
21.2.1 Gas-Liquid Heat Transfer
21.2.2 Liquid-Liquid Heat Transfer
21.2.3 Solid-Gas or Solid-Liquid Heat Transfer
21.2.4 Classification Table
21.3 Direct Contact Heat Exchangers
21.3.1 Gas-Liquid Contactors
21.3.2 Liquid-Liquid Contactors
21.3.3 Solid-Gas or Solid-Liquid Contactors
21.4 Direct Contact Heat Transfer Models
21.4.1 Basic Heat Transfer Equation
21.4.2 Heat Transfer Unit Approach
21.4.3 Heat and Mass Transfer Analogy
21.5 Direct Contact Fluid Dynamic Models
21.5.1 Fluid Dynamics of Bubble Columns
21.5.2 Fluid Dynamics of Spray Columns
21.5.3 Counterflow Flooding in Tubes and Orifices
21.5.4 Flooding in Packed Columns
22. Direct Contact Condensers
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Applications of Direct Contact Condensation
22.3 Classification of Direct Contact Condensers
22.3.1 Drop-Type Direct Contact Condensers
22.3.2 Jet- and Sheet-Type Direct Contact Condensers
22.3.3 Film-Type Direct Contact Condensers
22.3.4 Bubble-Type Direct Contact Condensers
22.4 Thermal Hydraulics of Direct Contact Condensers
22.4.1 Theoretical Model of a Drop Condenser
22.4.2 Theoretical Models of Sheet, Jet, and Fan Condensers
22.4.3 Correlations for Film-Type Condensers
22.4.4 Theoretical Models of Bubble-Type Condensers
22.4.5 Comparison of Thermal Performance of Different Types of Direct Contact Condensers
23. Water Cooling Towers
23.1 Introduction
23.2 Forms of Cooling Towers
23.3 Air-Water System
23.3.1 Humidity
23.3.2 Wet Bulb Temperature and Adiabatic Saturation Temperature
23.3.3 Enthalpy Relationships and the Psychrometric Chart
23.4 Determination of Water-Air Flow-Rate Ratio: The Merkel Method
23.5 Pressure Drop and Tower Height
24. Furnaces
24.1 Introduction
24.2 Types of Furnaces Used in Process Plants
24.3 Boilers
24.4 Furnace Heat Transfer
24.4.1 Furnace Heat Balance
24.4.2 Hot Gases as Heat Source
24.4.3 HeatSink
24.4.4 Effect of Tube Geometry on the Heat Sink Characteristics
24.5 Furnace Models
24.5.1 “Well Stirred” Furnace Model. .
24.5.2 General Equation of Furnace Performance
24.5.3 Allowance for Incomplete Mixing and Wall Losses
24.5.4 Plug-Flow Furnace Model
25. Heat Transfer Associated with Thermodynamic Cycles
25.1 Introduction
25.2 Heat Engines and Heat Pumps
25.3 Efficiency and Coefficients of Performance
25.4 Heat Engines
25.4.1 Gas Turbines
25.4.2 Steam Turbines
25.5 Heat Pumps
25.5.1 Vapor Compression Cycle
25.5.2 Refrigerators
25.5.3 Liquefaction of Gases by Recycling
25.5.4 Heating
25.6 Absorption Cycles
25.6.1 Simple Absorption Cycle Refrigerator
25.6.2 Electrolux Refrigeration Cycle
26. Process Integration
26.1 Introduction
26.2 Composite Curves and Minimum Energy Requirements
26.2.1 Two-Stream Case
26.2.2 Six-Stream Case
26.3 Heat Exchanger Network Design
26.4 Heat Engines and Heat Pumps
26.5 Process Change
26.6 Limitations
27. Fouling of Heat Exchangers
27.1 Introduction
27.2 Heat Transfer Problems
27.3 Effect of Fouling on Heat Transfer
27.4 Pressure Drop Problems
27.5 Fouling Phenomena
27.5.1 Crystallization
27.5.2 Particulate Deposition
27.5.3 Biological Growth
27.5.4 Chemical Reaction at a Fluid-Surface Interface
27.5.5 Corrosion
27.5.6 Freezing
27.5.7 Mixed Fouling
27.6 Factors of Importance in the Fouling Process
27.6.1 Temperature
27.6.2 Temperature Distribution
27.6.3 Effects of Velocity
27.6.4 Concentration of Foulant or Foulant Precursors Leading to Fouling
27.7 Operation of Heat Exchangers
27.8 Fouling Resistance Concept
27.8.1 Fouling Data
27.9 Economic Penalties of Fouling
27.9.1 Additional Surface
27.9.2 Corrosion
27.9.3 Operation and Maintenance
27.9.4 Loss of Production
27.9.5 Cleaning
27.9.6 Additional Pumping Power
27.9.7 Utilization of Energy
27.9.8 Use of Antifoulants
28. Enhancement of Heat Transfer
28.1 Introduction
28.1.1 Classification of Enhancement Techniques.
28.2 Passive Methods
28.2.1 Passive Augmentation Applied to Free Convection Heat Transfer
28.2.2 Forced Convective Heat Transfer
28.2.3 Passive Augmentation Applied to Multiphase Flow Heat Transfer
28.3 Active Methods
28.3.1 Augmentation of Heat Transfer in Laminar Flow and Natural Convection by Mechanical Means
28.3.2 Mechanical Augmentation Techniques for Forced Convection Heat Transfer
28.4 Compound Techniques
28.5 Enhancement of Condensation
28.6 Enhancement of Boiling and Evaporation Heat Transfer
28.7 Acceptance Criteria
29. Regenerative Heat Exchangers
29.1 Introduction
29.2 Application of Regenerative Heat Exchangers
29.2.1 Fixed Bed Regenerators
29.2.2 Rotary Regenerators
29.3 Regenerator Design
29.3.1 Theoretical Model of Regenerators
29.3.2 Design Parameters
29.3.3 Performance of Symmetric Counterflow Regenerators
29.3.4 Effects of Geometry on Reduced Length
29.3.5 Effects of Material Thermal Conductivity on Regenerator Performance
30. Electrical Heating
30.1 Introduction
30.2 Common Techniques of Electrical Heating
30.3 Resistance Heating
30.3.1 Basic Theory
30.3.2 Indirect Heating
30.3.3 Direct Heating
30.4 Induction Heating
30.4.1 Basic Concepts
30.4.2 Practical Aspects
30.5 Dielectric Heating
30.5.1 Simple Theory
30.5.2 Energy Penetration and Uniform Heating
30.5.3 Practical Aspects
30.5.4 Types of Microwave Applicators
30.5.5 Types of Radiofrequency Applicators
30.5.6 Equipment Selection
30.6 Infrared Heating
30.6.1 Selection of Infrared Equipment for Process Heating
30.7 Conclusion
31. Heat Transfer in Agitated Vessels
31.1 Introduction
31.2 Agitation within the Vessel
31.2.1 Nonproximity Systems
31.2.2 Proximity Systems
31.2.3 Construction
31.3 Heat Transfer in the Jacket (and Limpet Coils)
31.4 Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Coils
31.5 Heat Transfer on the inside of the Vessel Wall and on Immersed Helical Coils
31.5.1 Nonproximity Mechanical Agitation
31.5.2 Proximity Agitation
Appendix I. Heat Exchanger Performance: Equations and Charts
1.1 Effective Temperature Difference, ΔTM
1.2 Heat Exchanger Effectiveness, E
1.3 References to Other Data on Effectiveness
Appendix II. Thermophysical Properties of Substances