Flame jets are finding applications in manufacturing, materials processing and other technological uses where high heat transfer rates arc in demand. A brief overview of combustion and heat transfer from impinging an flame jet(s) and the interaction between the reaction products and the target surfaces is presented. The contributions of convection and radiation to the total heat transfer rate from the combustion products to the target surface are assessed. A class of important applications in materials processing in which multiple flame jets impinge on a moving metal target is reviewed. Critical questions which need to be answered for more complete understanding of combustion and heat transfer processes and flame-target thermal interactions are raised and topics needing research attention are identified.