Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO), also referred to as hydrothermal water oxidation (HTO), is an emerging technology for the destruction of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes. SCWO destroys combustible materials using an oxidant in water at temperatures in the range of 350°C (662°F) to 600°C (1112°F) and pressures of 17 MPa (2500 psi) or greater. The results of two comprehensive research and demonstration programs for the application of SCWO to DoD waste problems are discussed. The technical challenges were primarily in the areas of corrosion and salts handling, solids handling, pressure letdown, and prefeed preparation. These challenges were overcome, and the destruction of chemical warfare agents and propellants was demonstrated on a bench scale. The designs of a prototype HTO system for solid rocket propellant disposal and a transportable SCWO pilot plant for chemical warfare agents, propellants and other DoD wastes are complete. These units are scheduled to be operational by the end of 1994.