This monograph presents a review of methods that exist for describing the structure of a turbulent flow and the behavior in the flow under various conditions of the average velocity, variance of the velocity pulsations, one-point and two-point correlation moments of various orders, integral scales and microscales, spectral distributions. The turbulent motion often demonstrates a lot of peculiarities because of the reason that the integral correlation scale is comparable to the characteristic size of the flow.
The book presents experimentation results on the behavior of a turbulent flow under the influence of a vorticity created by rotation of a tube with respect to its longitudinal axis; on the behavior of spectral distributions which correspond to the second, third, and fourth-order moments; on the behavior of one-dimension and joint probability densities. Peculiar features of the behavior of the joint probability densities at abnormal values of the pulsations are addressed. Results obtained in Moscow Physical and Technical Institute are used.
Bibliographic references are given for further studies on problems of choice. The book provides a list of issues which are important for the improvement of the semi-empiric theory of turbulent transport but not yet investigated to a sufficient extent.
383 pages, © 2014