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Contemporary Perspectives on Air Cooling of Electronic Components

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Contemporary Perspectives on Air Cooling of Electronic Components

Mark E. Steinke
Mechanical Engineering Department, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York 14623, USA


In this book the author discusses the roots of electronics cooling and how air cooling is still dominant over water cooling and will remain so for the near term. For over a century now, this area has been ripe with active research in many disciplines spanning heat transfer, thermodynamics, materials science, and structural engineering. Perhaps the most appealing feature of the electronics cooling field is the very multidisciplinary nature of the challenges being overcome. Unlike some other areas, the electronics cooling system designer must have knowledge of several disciplines to design and deliver the most optimal electronics cooling solution. In the future there will be a new roadmap laid out before us and there may be a time liquid cooling is required in mainstream computing. However, I see many current years where air cooling will play a critical role and must be improved to meet future needs.

91 pages, © 2012


Chapter 1: Historical Perspective Of Electronics Cooling
1.1 Early History of Electronics Cooling
1.2 Processor Transistor Density and Power Consumption
1.3 Multi-Core Processing
1.4 Power Management Algorithms
1.5 Memory Power
1.6 Historical Lessons
Chapter 2: The Relevance Of Extending Air Cooling
2.1 Need for Advancing Air-Cooling- Based Technologies
2.2 Processor-Based Concerns
2.2.1 Increasing Mechanical Forces
2.2.2 Increasing Non-Processing Power
2.2.3 3D Packaging
2.3 Memory- Based Concerns
2.4 Communications-Based Concerns
2.5 Data-Center-Based Concerns
2.6 LED-Based Concerns
Chapter 3: Heat Sink Design Fundamentals
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Thermal Design Power and Temperature Specifications for Electronics Components
3.3 Heat Transfer in Electronic Packages
3.3.1 Basic Air Cooling Structure
3.3.2 Contact Resistance
3.3.3 Interface Pressure
3.4 Thermal Interface Material
3.5 Air Cooling Heat Sink Analysis
3.5.1 Theoretical Equations for Fin Heat Transfer
3.5.2 Experimental Testing
3.6 Heat Sink Validation for Component Thermal Specifications
Chapter 4: Air Flow Design Fundamentals
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Air Flow Generation by an Air- Moving Device
4.2.1 Structure and Comparison of Centrifugal Blowers and Axial Fans
4.2.2 Basic Principles and Equations
4.2.3 Performance of a Single Fan
4.2.4 Performance of Multiple Fans
4.3 Air Flow Impedance and Distribution
4.3.1 System-Level Air Flow Impedance
4.3.2 System Operating Points
4.3.3 Air Flow Distribution
Chapter 5: Recent Advances In Air-Cooling Technologies
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Recent Thermal Interface Material Advancements
5.2.1 Review of Thermal Interface Materials
5.2.2 Liquid Metal Thermal Interface Material
5.2.3 Products Based Upon Nanotechnology
5.3 Recent Heat Sink Advancements
5.3.1 Advances in Heat Sink Manufacturing
5.3.2 Recent Vapor Chamber Advances
5.3.3 Recent Heat Pipe Advances
5.3.4 Emerging Heat Sink Structures
Chapter 6: Future Needs For Air Cooling Technologies
6.1 Future Areas of Research and Development
6.2 Materials Science Research
6.3 Heat Sink Structure
6.4 Aerodynamics Efficiency Research
6.5 Acoustic Signature Reduction Research
6.6 Power Management and Power Efficiency
6.7 Cost, Cost, Cost
6.8 Overall Thoughts