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Analytics for Building-Scale Sustainable Ecosystems

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Analytics for Building-Scale Sustainable Ecosystems

Yong X. Tao
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115, USA

Yi Jiang
Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China


This edited volume comprises of research articles primarily resulting from the recent workshop of US-China Workshop on Analytics for Building-Scale Sustainable Ecosystems, sponsored by the US National Science Foundation (NSF), and held in Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. A group of researchers from both US and China academic institutions present in this volume their views of bottlenecks in engineering, software and social sciences, forming a nexus of critical issues impeding wider application of net-zero-energy (or near zero energy) building technology in the context of defining building-scale sustainable ecosystems. The focus of these investigations is the fundamentals of sciences that lead to a robust, significant improvement towards modeling and predicting building performance indices such as energy usage with user integration and sustainability. Achievements and challenges in research and development initiatives and best-practices from U.S. and China provide a foundation for such development of analytics and possibility of benchmarking and comparability. Intended readers include multidisciplinary researchers in the interested areas, and students in both graduate and senior undergraduate levels. The related disciplines of readers include architecture, sciences (including social and computer sciences), engineering, and public policy.

407 pages, © 2016


Chapter 1: Challenges in U.S.-China Building Research Collaboration
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Challenges and Targets
1.3 Differences in China-U.S. Building Consumption Data
1.4 Human Factors in Building Operation
1.5 Research Opportunities in U.S.-China Collaboration in Building Energy
1.6 Understanding of Energy Data Through Simulation
1.6.1 Energy and Occupant Behavior (OB) Simulation
1.6.2 New Concepts and Approaches
1.7 Summary
Chapter 2: A Review on International Research in Zero-Energy Buildings
2.1 Introduction
2.1.1 Definition of the Zero-Energy Building
2.1.2 Worldwide Attempts and Research on ZEBs
2.2 Building Materials
2.2.1 Embodied Energy for Building Materials
2.2.2 Thermal Insulation Materials
2.2.3 Reflective Materials
2.2.4 CO2 Emission of Building Materials
2.3 Control Technology for Comfort and Energy Saving
2.3.1 Model Predictive Control (MPC) System
2.3.2 Agent-Based Intelligent (AI) Control Systems
2.3.3 Control Technology for Power Mismatch
2.4 Zero-Energy Building Design
2.4.1 Basic Questions of Designing
2.4.2 ZEB Design Strategies
2.4.3 Climate Consideration during the Design Phase
2.4.4 Building Orientation and Window-to-Wall Ratio (WWR)
2.4.5 Ventilation System
2.4.6 Sky Radiation Cooling
2.4.7 Windows, Glazing, and Daylight
2.4.8 Adding Sunspace and Insulation
2.4.9 Shading, Overhangs, and Landscaping
2.4.10 Building Air Tightness or Infiltration
2.4.11 Chronological Evolution of ZEB Design Features
2.5 Renewable Energy Generation Technologies
2.5.1 Solar PV
2.5.2 PV Thermal (PV/T)
2.5.3 Solar Thermal Collector
2.5.4 Solar Tri-Generation System (PVTCI Technology)
2.5.5 Integration of PV with Other Systems
2.5.6 Wind Power
2.5.7 Biomass
2.5.8 Chronological Evolution of Renewable Energy Generation in ZEBs
2.6 HVAC Systems for Zero-Energy Buildings
2.6.1 Study on a Unique Integrated HVAC System with Solar Driven Absorption Chiller and Parabolic Concentrator
2.6.2 Geothermal Heat Pump HVAC System
2.6.3 Chronological Evolution of HVAC System in ZEBs
2.7 Lighting
2.8 Water Saving and Rain Water Harvesting in ZEBs
2.8.1 Reducing Water Consumption
2.9 Cost Analysis if ZEBs
2.10 Barriers to Achieve a ZEB
2.11 Potential Development Trend Toward ZEB
2.12 Conclusion
Chapter 3: Societal Benefits and Challenges of Sustainable Buildings and Their Ecosystems for Aging Populations
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Aging in the Community
3.3 Collective Living Settings
3.4 The Built Environment and Health
3.5 What are Others Doing? Individual Residential Living
3.6 Solar Water Heating: Boston
3.7 Community-University Partnerships
3.8 Housing and Support Technology
3.9 Collective Living
3.10 Empowerment and Economic Security: Cohousing Movement
3.11 Culture Change Movement: Eden Alternative and Green House Project
3.12 Comprehensive Solutions: Moving Away from One Structural Renovation at a Time
3.13 Conclusion
Chapter 4: Role of Life Cycle Assessment in Sustainable Building Ecosystems and Building Energy Comparison between China and the United States
4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 Energy and Environmental Challenges of Built Environment in Both Countries
4.1.2 Built Environment versus Ecosystems
4.1.3 Need for a Life Cycle Assessment Tool
4.2 Overview of Life Cycle Assessment
4.2.1 Life Cycle Assessment
4.2.2 A Brief History of LCA
4.2.3 Modeling Methods of LCA
4.2.4 Types of LCA
4.3 Life Cycle Assessment Stages
4.3.1 Goal and Scope Definition
4.3.2 Life Cycle Inventory Analysis
4.3.3 Life Cycle Impact Assessment
4.3.4 Interpretation
4.4 Limitations of Life Cycle Assessment
4.5 Life Cycle Assessment in Built Environment
4.5.1 Application Focuses
4.5.2 Environmental and Energy Concerns
4.6 Life Cycle Assessment Tools
4.7 Role of Life Cycle Assessment
4.7.1 Design
4.7.2 Procurement
4.7.3 Assessment
4.8 Challenges of Life Cycle Assessment Applications in the Building and Construction Industry
4.9 Summary
Chapter 5: Streamlining Parametric Modeling, BIM, Building Energy Modeling, and Estimation
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Parametric BIM
5.3 Building Energy Modeling and Cost Estimation
5.4 A Streamlined Modeling Process
5.5 Case Study
5.5.1 Problem Statements and Methods
5.5.2 Conceptual, Parametric BIM for Cost Estimating
5.5.3 Mixed Method of Excavation
5.5.4 Conceptual Modeling of ITS
5.5.5 Parametric Modeling of the ITS
5.6 Summary
Chapter 6: System Integration for Interoperable Data Models of Building-Scale Ecosystem
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Dynamic Life Cycle Information Modeling (DLIM)
6.3 Case 1: Web-Based Industry Products/Design Solutions Data Acquisition Assistant Tool
6.4 Case 2: LEED Energy Performance Online Submission Tool (LEPOST)
6.5 Case 3: China Green Building Codes and Standards Online (ICODES)
6.6 Summary
Chapter 7: Understanding Human Behavior in Designing Building-Scale Sustainable Ecosystems
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Cognitive Biases
7.2.1 Decision-Making, Belief, and Behavioral Biases
7.2.2 Social Biases
7.2.3 Memory Errors and Biases
7.2.4 Implications
7.3 Incentives
7.4 Technology
7.5 Case Study of Effects of Occupants on Building Design and Operation
7.5.1 Current Energy Consumption Status Globally
7.5.2 Case 1: BEC Comparison between Design and Operation
7.5.3 Case 2: BEC Comparison for Chicago Buildings
7.5.4 Case 3: China and U.S. Office Buildings
7.5.5 Case 4: Residential BEC Survey
7.5.6 Case 5: Effects of Central and Distributed Cooling
7.5.7 Case 6: Evaluation of Adaptability of Technology
7.5.8 Case 7: Evaluate the Adaptability of Variable Refrigerant Cooling (VRF)
7.6 Summary
Chapter 8: Developing Occupancy Influence Coefficients in Commercial Buildings Using Energy Modeling and Simulation of Human Behavior
8.1 Introduction
8.1.1 Building Energy Simulation and Design
8.1.2 Occupancy-Focused Interventions
8.1.3 Energy Policy
8.2 Occupancy Influence Coefficients
8.2.1 Sensitivity Analysis Results
8.2.2 Summary
8.3 Action-Based Occupant Behavior Modeling
8.3.1 Movement Model
8.3.2 Control Action Model
8.3.3 Integration with Building Energy Simulation Tools
8.3.4 Summary
8.4 Conclusion
Chapter 9: Rich Analytical Environments for Sustainable Building-Scale Ecosystems
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Sustainable Design
9.3 Application of Computational Tools to Sustainable Design: Theoretical Foundations
9.3.1 “Wicked Problems”
9.3.2 Sense Making
9.3.3 Situated Action
9.4 Research Directions
9.4.1 Integrated Modeling and Simulation
9.4.2 Interactive Exploratory Methods
9.4.3 Verification, Validation, and Evaluation
9.4.4 Fusing the Past, Present, and Future
9.5 Summary
Chapter 10: Sustainable Construction: The Cutting Edge and Emerging Challenges
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Net Zero Concept
10.2.1 Net Zero Energy (nZE)
10.2.2 Budgeting for nZE
10.2.3 Regulations in the U.S. National and Local Governments and Other Programs
10.3 Net Zero Water (nZW)
10.3.1 Budgeting for nZW
10.3.2 Regulations in the U.S. National and Local Government and Other Programs
10.4 Net Zero Materials (nZM)
10.4.1 Budgeting for nZM
10.4.2 Regulations in the U.S. National and Local Governments and Other Programs
10.5 Net Zero Emissions (nZEm)
10.6 Net Zero Carbon (nZC)
10.7 Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs)
10.8 Carbon Accounting
10.9 Conclusions
Chapter 11: Toward Net Zero Energy Buildings in 2018
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Achieving the European and North American “2018–2030 Targets” of Net Zero Energy Buildings with Parametric 3D/4D BIM Design Tools
11.3 Performanced-Based Criteria for Designing Net Zero Energy Buildings in the EU and the United States
11.4 The Urgency for Developing Common Metrics and Rating Tools for nZEBs
11.5 Parametric 3D/4D CAE/CAD/CAM Software Development
11.6 Overcoming the Differences in Using Parametric Performance-Based 3D Modeling Tools in the Profession and Academia
11.7 Three European-German Case Studies
11.7.1 Plus-Energy Buildings in Freiburg, Vauban, Germany
11.7.2 Biological Precedent: Heliotropism
11.7.3 Application: Passive Systems
11.7.4 Application: Active Systems
11.7.5 Building Energy Performance Measuring: Heliotrope and Plus-Energy Settlement Freiburg-Vauban
11.7.6 Net Zero Energy Mercedes Benz Plant in Rastatt, Germany
11.7.7 Nearly Net Zero Energy Building Q1 Thyssen-Krupp Headquarter, Essen, Germany
11.8 Radical Change Needed in Academia and in the Profession
11.9 Summary
Chapter 12: Green Air Conditioners Using Refrigerants of Low Global Warming Potential
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Hydrocarbon Refrigeration Systems
12.3 Ammonia Refrigeration Systems
12.4 Two-Phase Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration Systems
12.5 Compact Gas-Cycle AC System with Integrated Compression, Gas Cooling, Expansion, and Heat Pipe Cooler
12.6 Summary
Chapter 13: Supervisory Control System for Energy-Efficient Buildings
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Overview of Supervisory Control System
13.2.1 System Configuration
13.2.2 Supervisory Control System
13.2.3 Optimal Control Strategy
13.3 System Model
13.3.1 Zone Thermal Dynamics
13.3.2 Air Handling Unit Model
13.3.3 Energy Consumption
13.3.4 Operating Constraints
13.4 Model Predictive Control Formulation
13.4.1 State-Space Representation
13.4.2 Cost Function
13.4.3 Load Prediction
13.4.4 Model Predictive Control Problem
13.5 Optimization Algorithms
13.5.1 Summary
Chapter 14: Selected Works in Chinese Building Technology Research
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Solution for Heating in Cold Regions
14.3 Solution for a Seasonal Cooling Energy Storage System
14.4 Solution for Year-Round Cooling
14.5 Solution for Year-Round Heating
14.6 Developing Energy-Efficient Buildings: New Concepts and Approach
14.7 Innovation in Building Automation
14.8 Indirect Evaporative Cooling Technology
14.9 Indirect Evaporative Water and Air Cooling (IEWAC) Technology and Its Applications Worldwide
14.10 Summary
Appendix A: Introduction of Building Energy Online Monitoring System
Appendix B: Energy Consumption in United States Office Buildings Since the 1950's and Its Lasting Effects
Appendix C: Investigation, Analysis and Simulation of Occupant Behavior in Buildings
Appendix D: Rural Building Energy in China and Sustainable Strategies
Appendix E: The State of the Art of Green Building Development in China
Appendix F: High Temperature Cooling and Low Temperature Heating in Buildings